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a- before
a.c. before meals
ASA aspirin AKA acetylsalicylic acid
ad lib as desired
APAP acetaminophen AKA NacetyPaminophenol
A.D. right ear
AD Alzheimer's disease
A.S. or AS left ear
A.U. or AU both ears
B.I.D. or b.i.d or bid twice a day
c- with
cap(s) capsule(s) or caplet(s)
comp. compound (Tylox)
CR or C-R controlled release
D (Zyrtec D) decongestant (antihistamine)
D/C discontinue or discharge
DR drug resistant
D.S. or DS double strength
elix. elixir
ER extended release
ES extra strength
FA folic acid
GHB date rape drug AKA gammahydroxybutyrate
h or hr hour or degree sign O
h.s. hours of sleep (bedtime)
h.s. is usually at 2200 hours (10:00 p.m.)
HS half strength
HTN hypertension (high blood pressure)
IB ibuprofen
IND investigational new drug
INJ or inj injection
K potassium
KCl potassium chloride (lower case l)
K or KCl is commonly measured in milliequivalents (mEq.)
LA or L.A. or L-A long acting
liq. liquid
MDR multidrug resistant or minimum daily requirements
MN midnight
MS morphine sulfate multiple sclerosis magnesium sulfate
MSO4 morphine sulfate
MgSO4 magnesium sulfate
ND non drowsy
NIH National Institutes of Health
NKA no known allergies
NKDA no known drug allergies
NPO or n.p.o. nothing by mouth
NR no refills
NS or NSS normal saline solution AKA 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl)
O.D. or OD right eye or overdose
O.S. or OS left eye
O.U. or OU both eyes
OTC or otc over the counter
p- after
p.c. or pc after meals
PT or Pt patient
PCN penicillin
PCA patient controlled analgesia
PRN or p.r.n. as needed (whenever necessary)
q- every
Q.D. or q.d. or qd every day
q.h. or qh every hour
q.2.h. or q2h every two hours
Q.I.D. or q.i.d. four times a day
Q.O.D. or q.o.d. every other day
RDA recommended daily allowance
RF refills
Rph registered pharmacist
Rx prescription
s- without
SA sustained action
SPF sun protection factor
SR slow release or sustained release
ss sliding scale
ss- = 1/2
A sliding scale refers to insulin dosage based on blood sugar (BS)
stat. now
syp. syrup
tab or tabs tablet(s)
TDM therapeutic drug monitoring
T.I.D. or t.i.d. three times a day
TPN total parenteral nutrition AKA hyperalimentation (hyperal)
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN refers to the administration of all nutrients intravenously
UD unit dose
ung. or oint. ointment
WHO World Health Organization
WNL within normal limits
w/o without
XL extended length
XR extended release
greater than opens to the left
less than opens to the right
triangle change
The study of drugs and their interactions with living organisms is called pharmacology
Any non food chemical substance that affects the mind or body is called a drug
A drug that is deliberately administered for its medicinal value is called a medicine
The three medical uses for medications are to: 1. Prevent disease. 2. Diagnose disease. 3. Treat disease.
FDA stands for Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration regulates prescription and over the counter (OTC)medications for use in the US.
DEA stands for Drug Enforcement Administration
The Drug Enforcement Administration regulates the manufacturing and dispensing of potentially abused drugs
Schedule drugs refers to drugs that have a potential for abuse
Schedule drugs are AKA controlled drugs
The lower the number of the scheduled drug the greater the abuse potential
Schedule 1 drugs are non prescribed and have no medicinal use
Schedule 2 drugs are higher rate of most abused drugs
United States Pharmacopeia or National Formulary (USP/NF) a list of all prescribed and OTC medications in the US and all information known about each medication
A common pharmacopeia is a Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR)
The name given to a drug when it is created is called the generic name
A generic name is usually recognized by these three 1. Being lower cased. 2. Being usually hard to pronounced. 3. Being in parentheses.
The nick-name given to a generic drug so consumers will remember it is called these three 1. Trade name. 2. Brand name. 3. Product name.
The trade name is usually recognized by these three 1. Being capitalized. 2. Being easy to pronounce. 3. Having a registered mark.
Trade name medications and their generic equivalent must contain exactly the same amount of active ingredients
Active ingredients are designed to provide the therapeutic (beneficial) effect
Ingredients permitted to vary from generic and trade name drugs are called inert (inactive) ingredients
Inert (inactive) ingredients include these five 1. Binders 2. Fillers 3. Preservatives 4. Antioxidants 5. Buffers
Pharmacists are permitted to substitute a generic drug for a prescribed trade name drug unless the prescribing physician requests no substitutions or dispense as written (DAW)
Poisonous effects of a drug are called toxic effects
The dosage margin between the therapeutic (beneficial) affect and toxic (poisonous) effect is called the therapeutic index (TI)
NTI narrow therapeutic index
A large initial (beginning) dose of a medication to quickly reach the therapeutic index (TI) is called a loading dose or bolus
An inert (inactive) pharmacological agent prescribed to created a psychological and/or physiological effect is called a placebo AKA sugar pill
All new pharmaceutical drugs are protected by a patent lasting 17 years
A drug patent means that no other company can manufacture or market an identical drug
Most medications are detoxified by the liver
Most medications are excreted by the kidneys
Most medications can be detected in a urine sample
A tablet that has an indented line running across the top is called scored
A tablet designed to dissolve in a glass of water before being swallowed is called effervescent
Tablets covered with a special coasting that prevents stomach upset are called enteric coated
An enteric coated ASA (aspirin) is called Ecotrin
The classifications of ASA (aspirin)include these four 1. Non-narcotic analgesic (pain management) 2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) 3. Antipyretic (against fever) 4. Anticoagulant (against clotting)
Medications that disintegrate slowly into a liquid (liq.) form that releases the drug into the mouth and throat is called these three lozenge or troche or pastille
The term used to describe a liquid (liq.) with a watery consistency is called aqueous
The term used to describe a thick liquid (liq.) is viscous
A small bottle containing injectable medication with a rubber diaphragm at the bottle neck for needle insertion is called a vial
A small slender container with a narrow neck which houses an injectable liquid (liq.) is called an ampule (Amp.)
A liquid (liq.) medication that contains alcohol (ETOH) is called an elixir (elix.) or tincture
A liquid (liq.) medication that contains no alcohol (ETOH) and is a concentrated solution of sugar, water and flavorings is called a syrup
Fat globules dispersed throughout a water base is called an emulsion
Drug particles dispersed throughout a thickened water base is called a gel
Undissolved particles of medication to be mixed with a liquid (water) just before use is called a suspension (susp.)
Since the particles will settle, a suspension (susp.) must be shaken well before use
The route of administration is the path by which a medication is taken into the body
The method by which the medication is dispensed is called administration
Dispense means to prepare and distribute
Movement of a drug from the site of administration into the bloodstream is called absorption
Routes of administration include: 1. A medication applied to the skin or the eyes or the ears is caled topical (top)
Topical medications include these three lotions ointments (ung. or oint.) and creams
2. Medication patch administration through the skin to the bloodstream is called transdermal
3. A medication administered by mouth (orally) is abbreviated PO or po or p.o.
4. A medication administrated SL stands for sublingual (under the tounge)
5. A medication administrated IN stands for intranasal
6. A medication administrated through a NG {ng} refers to a nasogastric tube
7. A medication administrated through a G tube or J tube refers to a gastrostomy tube jejunostomy tube
8. A medication administrated PR stands for per rectum
Medications administered rectally R usually refer to suppositories (supp.) and enemas
9. A medication administered vaginally (Vag.) usually refers to these four suppositories creams foams douches
10. Inhalation (INH) administration refers to breathing in medications
Inhalation (INH) administration includes: a. MDI which stands for metered dose inhaler
b. Nebulizers AKA vaporizers
c. NPPV which stands for non invasive positive pressure ventiliation
Non invasive positive pressure ventilation AKA IPPB which stands for intermittent positive pressure breathing
11. Endotracheal (ET) administration refers to within the trachea (windpipe)
12. Parenteral (hypodermic) administration includes: a. Intradermal (ID) administration refers to within the skin
Common intradermal (ID) injections (INJ or inj) include these three Mantoux PPD tine
b. subcutaneous administration is abbreviated subQ or subcu {subq. SC, SQ}
Medications administered subcutaneously (subQ or subcu) include insulin and heparin
c. Intramuscular administration is abbreviated I.M. or IM
d. Intravenous administration is abbreviated I.V. or IV
e. IVP stands for intravenous push
f. IVPB stands for intravenous piggyback
Common intravenous piggyback (IVPB) medications include antibodies
g. Intra-articular (IA) administration refers to an injection (INJ or inj) into a joint
Common intra-articular (IA) medications include steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs)
h. Intrathecal (IT) administration refers to an injection (INJ or inj) into the subarachnoid (SA) space
Common intrathecal (IT) injections (INJ or inj) include these two anesthesia and analgesics (pain management)
i. Epidural (ED) administration refers to an injection (INJ or inj) outside the dura mater
Common epidural (ED) injections (INJ or inj) include anesthesia and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs)
An epidural (ED) injection (INJ or inj) is AKA a caudal injection (INJ or inj) or saddle block
The drug's main action for which it was prescribed by the physician is called the therapeutic (beneficial) effect
Drug actions that are undesirable but not unexpected are called side effects
Severe side effects are called adverse effects
An unusual or exaggerated allergic reaction to a medication is called anaphylaxis
An undesirable interaction of drugs is called incompatibility
A unique reaction to a medication is called an idiosyncrasy
A drug that deactivates another drug is called an antagonist
The combining of medications to produce an exaggerated effect is called synergism
An example of a therapeutic (beneficial) synergistic effect is Tylenol #3 which contains these two acetaminophen (APAP) and codeine
Together APAP and codeine provide an increased analgesic (pain management) effect
An example of an undesirable synergistic effect is the combination of antihistamines and alcohol (ETOH) which can cause unusual drowsiness
The synergistic effect of combining tranquilizers and alcohol (ETOH) can cause death
mL stands for milliter
A milliliter (mL) is equal to a cubic centimeter {cc}
L or l stands for liter
1 liter (L) = ____ milliliters 1000 milliliters
mg stands for milligram
g stands for gram
1 gram (g) = ____ milligrams 1000 milligrams (mg)
mcg {ug} stands for microgram
1 gram (g) = ____ micrograms 1,000,000 micrograms (mcg)
kg {Kg} stands for kilogram
1 kilogram (kg) = ____ grams 1000 grams (g)
M stands for meter
cm stands for centimeter
1000 milligrams (mg) = ____ gram (g) 1 gram
1000 milliliters (mL) = ____ liter (L) 1 liter
1000 millimeters (mm) = ____ meter (M) 1 meter
1 gram (g) = ____ milligrams (mg) 1000 milligrams
1 liter (L) = ____ milliliters (mL) 1000 milliliters
1 meter (M) = ____ millimeters (mm) 1000 millimeters
i stands for one
ii stands for two
iii stands for three
iv stands for four
v stands for five
x stands for ten or times
oz. stands for ounce
Tsp or tsp. stands for teaspoon
Tbsp. stands for tablespoon
gr. stands for grain
lb or # stands for pound
pound (lb) i = 16 ounces (oz.)
Gal stands for gallon
gallon (Gal) i = 128 oz.
tsp i = ____ milliliters 5 milliliters
Tbsp i = ____ milliliters 15 milliliters
oz i = ____ milliliters 30 milliliters
gt. stands for a drop
gtt. stands for drops
1 kilogram (kg) = _____ pounds 2.2 pounds (lb.)
grain (gr.) i = ____ milligrams 60 milligrams (mg)
2.54 centimeters (cm) = ____ inch 1 inch (in)
Physical or psychological dependence on a drug with an increase of dosage for desired effects (tolerance) and withdrawal symptoms when deprived of the drug is addiction
Medications used to treat malignancies are called antineoplastics AKA chemotherapy ("chemo")
Medications used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms are called antiseptics
Inhibiting the growth of bacteria (preservative) is called bacteriostatic
The inside diameter of a needle is called the bore (gauge)
As the number (#) of the gauge increases the size of the needle bore decreases
A small intravenous (IV) needle with plastic wings is called a butterfly needle
Reason(s) why a medication should not be administered is called contraindication(s)
Agents used to kill microorganisms are called disinfectants
Insulin is measured in units
Three other medications measured in units include 1 heparin 2 vitamins 3 injectable penicillin (PCN)
Periodic doses of a drug to maintain a therapeutic (beneficial) level are called maintenance doses
Medications used to construct the pupils (miosis) are called miotics
Medications used to dilate the pupils (mydriasis) are called mydriatics
A blood test to indicate the highest serum level of a drug is called the peak level
A blood test to indicate the lowest serum level of a drug is called the trough level
Medications used to prevent an occurrence are called prophylactics
Prophylactic medications include these three 1 (BCPs) Birth Control Pills AKA oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) 2 Antibiotics 3 Vaccines
Vaccines are AKA inoculations or immunizations
A standardized written plan of treatment protocol
Determining the smallest dosage that will produce a therapeutic (beneficial) effect is called titration (titrate)
Medications used to increase the diameter of the blood vessels are called vasodilators
Vasodilators are used to treat these two 1 angina pectoris (AP) 2 hypertension (HTN)
Medications used to decrease the diameter of the blood vessels are called vasopressors (vasoconstrictors)
Vasopressors are used to treat extreme hypotension (low blood pressure)
Each day has ___ hours 24 hours
In military time, each hour in the day has a different number
0100 = 1:00 am
0200 2:00 am
0300 3:00 am
0400 4:00 am
0500 5:00 am
0600 6:00 am
0700 7:00 am
0800 8:00 am
0900 9:00 am
1000 10:00 am
1100 11:00 am
1200 noon
1300 1:00 pm
1400 2:00 pm
1500 3:00 pm
1600 4:00 pm
1700 5:00 pm
1800 6:00 pm
1900 7:00 pm
2000 8:00 pm
2100 9:00 pm
2200 10:00 pm
2300 11:00 pm
2400 midnight
0001 1 minute after midnight
0059 1 minute before 0100
1330 plus 30 minutes 1400 hours
2055 plus 5 minutes 2100 hours
Created by: Denjack



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