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AP Psych cards

AP PSYCH Modules 1,2,3

TermDefinition
structuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
psychology the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
psychiatry a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders: practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
natue-nuture issue the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
natural selection the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
levels of analysis the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-culture, for analyzing and given phenomenon
humanistic psychology histroically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
functionalism a school of psychology that focused in how mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
empiricism the view that a knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and science flourishes through observation and experiment
counseling psychology a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living
clinical psychology a branch of psychology that studies, assesses , and treats people with psychological disorders
biopsychosocial approach an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
basic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
applied researcg scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
replication repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situation to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
operational definition a statement of the procedures used to define research variables.
hypothesis a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group o people and transmitted from one generation to the next
hindsight bias the tendency to believe, that after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
critical thinking thinking that does not blindly accept argument and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
survey a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
statistical significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
standard deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
range The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
random sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
random assignment Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
population the whole group you want to study and describe
placebo effect experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
naturalistic observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
mode the most frequently occurring score in a distribution
median The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
mean the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
independent variable the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
illusory correlation the perception of a relationship where none exists
false consensus effect the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
experimental condition the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
experiment procedure that tests a hypothesis by collecting information under controlled conditions
double-blind procedure an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
dependent variable the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
correlation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to 1.
control Condition the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
case Study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Created by: evancaplan