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Patient Care

Chapters 7 and 10 - Torres textbook

What are some symptoms that patient is in shock? Decreased Temperature, weak pulse, rapid heartbeat, hypotension, skin pallor
Why is anaphylactic shock the most frequently seen type of shock in radiography? Iodinated contrast agents are frequently used.
Early signs and symptoms of anaphylactic reaction are? Itching, tearing of eyes, apprehension
Symptoms of a partially obstructed airway may include? Labored, noisy breathing, wheezing, use of neck muscles to assist with breathing
If a patient appears to be fainting, the 1st thing you should do is what? Assist the patient to a safe position and then call for help.
What are some symptoms of cardiogenic shock? Loss of consciousness, decreased blood pressure, weak or rapid pulse
What are some signs of hypovelemic shock? Pallor, thirst, cold, clammy skin, restlessness
Define diaphoresis Profuse sweating
What is glucagon? Hormone secreted by islets of Langerhans in response to hypoglycemia or stimulation of growth hormone.
Define shock. Body's pathological reaction to illness, trauma, or severe physiologic or emotional stress.
What are the 3 stages of shock? Compensatory, Progressive and Irreversible
What are the 3 classes of shock? Hypovolemic, Cardiogenic , and Distributive (Vasogenic)
What is the cause of cardiogenic shock? It is caused by a failure of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to the vital organs.
How does distributive shock occur? When the blood pools in peripheral blood vessel, resulting in decreased venous return of blood to the heart, decreased bp, and decreased tissue perfusion.
What are the 3 types of distributive shock? Neurogenic, Septic, and Anaphylactic
Name some causes of neurogenic shock. Spinal cord injury, insulin reaction or shock, anesthesia
What is the cause of septic shock? Gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria
Define anaphylactic shock? An exaggerated allergic reaction to re-exposure to an antigen that was previously encountered by the body's immune system.
What is another name for anaphylactic shock? Anaphylaxis
What are the most common causes of anaphylactic shock? Medications, iodinated contrast agents, and insect venoms
What are some of the causes of obstructive shock? Pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, aterial stenosis, or tumors
Define pulmonary embolus. The blockage of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus or thrombi.
What are the 4 types of diabetes? Type I diabetes mellitus, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus associated with other medical conditions, Gestational Diabetes
Type ___ diabetes mellitus occurs in persons younger than 30 year old. Type 1
Type __ diabetes mellitus occurs in persons older than 40 year old. Type 2
What are some causes of cerebral vascular accidents (CVA)? Blocked blood supply to brain, rupture of blood supply to brain, rupture of cerebral artery
What is a brain attack Stroke
Define Ileostomy Artificial opening (stoma) erected in small intestine (ileum) and brought to surface for evacuating feces.
Define radioisotope. Radioactive form of element used for diagnosis and treatment.
Define radionuclide. Radioactive nuclide that disintegrates with emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Define stoma. Opening in body created by bringing loop of bowel to skin's surface.
Name the 2 types of contrast agents. Negative and positive
What do negative contrast agents do? DECREASE organ density to produce contrast
What do positive contrast agents do? INCREASE organ density and improve visualization.
Name two negative contrast agents. Carbon dioxide, air
Name two positive contrast agents. Barium sulfate, Iodinated preps
What are the different routes of administration of barium sulfate? By mouth, by rectum, or by infusion
What eating instructions are given for a LGI? 2 - 3 days before, eat a low-residue diet .
Does the patient decrease or increase fluid intake before the LGI? Increase (2 - 3 days before)
What is recommended 24 hours before a LGI? A clear liquid diet
What happens the afternoon before a LGI? 10 ounces of magnesium citrate or equivalent is prescribed.
Is there any other prep needed the night before for a LGI? A cleansing enema should be used.
What is the most frequently used type of cleansing enemas? Saline, hypertonic, oil-retention, tap water and soapsuds enemas
The amount of solution prescribed for a saline or SS cleansing enema before barium studies of the LGI is usually ________ ml. 1000
The only safe soap to use for a cleansing enema is? Castile soap
When upper & lower GI series are scheduled, as the readiographer, you must schedule the UGI series first. T/F False
The type of cleansing enema prescribed for a pediatric patient would probably be? Saline enema
Why must a patient not smoke or chew gum before these exams? It increases gastric secretion, which may cause dilution of the contrast agent.
What are some adverse reactions to glucagon? Nausea, vomiting, hives, flushing
What are some adverse reactions to anticholinergic drugs? Dry mouth, thirst, tachycardia, urinary retention, blurred vision
How much barium does a patient drink for the UGI series or SBFT? 14 to 16 ounces of flavored barium
If a patient is scheduled for an UGI and LGI using barium, which exam should be performed first? LGI is first because barium clears quicker
All radiographic exams that _____ contrast media should be scheduled _________. do not, first
Ultrasound exams are scheduled ________ GI exams using contrast agents. before
Thyroid scans must be done _______ exams using iodinated contrast agents before
Exams requiring patients to fast for 8 hours or more should be scheduled when? Early in the morning.
Priority scheduling is given to what age group/disease category? Pediatric, elderly, diabetes mellitus patients
Created by: rad1958tech