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Nur210 Infection

Pharmacology infection

What are lines of defense against infection? Individual immunity - heredity Nutrition Anatomical - good barriers (skin, mucus membranes, cilia) Biochemical - acidic environment (stomach) Mechanical - coughing, sneezing Immune system status
What types of WBCs are there? Neutrophils - first responders Eosinophils - allergies Basophils - healing Lymphocytes - late (weeks) Monocytes - chronic (months)
What are local signs of an inflammatory reaction? Redness, swelling, warmth, pain
What are systemic signs of inflammation? Leukocytes - high WBC count General malaise and fatigue Fever Confusion in older adult Enlarged lymph nodes
What are some causes of nosocomial infections? Invasive procedures Antibiotic administration Exposure to multi-drug resistant organisms Failure to follow standard precautions Heredity Nutritional deficiencies
What are some nursing interventions for infection? Monitor temperature, vital signs, color, WBC count, LOC, energy level Actions - wash hands, standard precautions, surgical asepsis, immunizations Teaching - immunizations/infection
What needs to be considered in selection of antibiotics? Identify organism (C & S) Drug sensitivity of organism - MIC Host factors - look at patient; don't use a med that is excreted by kidney on someone with kidney issues Allergy Penetration to site of infection
What are nursing implications of antibiotic therapy? Baseline assessment Monitoring therapy Nursing actions Patient education - take on empty stomach
What are properties of "cillins?" Bacteriocidal Weaken the cell wall Prone to bacterial resistance Some are narrow spectrum, some are broad spectrum
What are some "cillin" nursing interventions? Monitor for allergic reactions Take on empty stomach Avoid foods that have a lot of acid Complete course of antibiotics Can give to people with meningitis - crosses BBB
What are the types of penicillin allergies? Immediate (2-30 minutes) Accelerated (1-72 hours) Late (days or weeks) Interventions - stop the treatment, provide respiratory support, give antihistamine (Benadryl)
What are some properties of cephalosporins? Penicillin's cousin Bactericidal Beta-lactam antibiotic Grouped in 4 generations
What are ADRs of cephalosporins? Allergy similar to penicillins Bleeding Thrombophlebitis Most are given IV because they don't absorb well from stomach Do not give IM - painful
What are properties of aminoglycosides? Narrow spectrum antibiotic Bactericidal - disrupt protein synthesis Used against aerobic gram-negative bacilli (E. coli and Pseudomonas) Tobramycin and Gentamycin
What are ADRs of aminoglycosides? Nephrotoxicity Ototoxicity Not absorbed well via GI tract, so given IV Very narrow spectrum - need to do peaks and troughs
What are properties of sulfonamides and trimethoprim (Bactrim)? Given for UTIs, CA-MRSA Broad spectrum antibiotic Bacteriostatic Inhibits folic acid
What are ADRs of sulfonamides and trimethoprim? Hypersensitivity - photosensitive Blood dyscrasias - bleeding disorders Rash
What are properties of tetracyclines? Broad spectrum Bacteriostatic Take on empty stomach Cannot take with milk; will bind with Ca2+, Fe3+, Mg2+, Al3+, Zn2+, and not be absorbed at all
What are ADRs of tetracyclines? Photosensitivity Stain teeth (yellow or brown)
What are properties of Macrolides? Type of tetracycline Erythromycin Viaxin Z-pack Broad spectrum Bacteriostatic Use if allergic to penicillin
What are ADRs of erythromycin? GI - causes nausea and vomiting Do not use if you have a liver problem
Created by: ssbourbon