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Sonnys Final

Rad Bio Final

When is the fetus most sensitive to radiation? 1st trimester 10 days -10 weeks
What are teratogens? An agent that causes birth defects
Give examples? Radiation, alcohol, drugs, mercury
Doubling Dose typically occurs at how many rem? 156 rem (1.56 sV)
During Fetal Development, which stage is most likely to get organ damage? Organogenesis- 10 days to 6 weeks
What is the LD 50/60 for humans? Lethal dose kills 50% of population in 60 days after exposure
On average, how many rads would cause ARS? Typically over 600 rad
What's another name for Unrestricted area? Uncontrolled area
What is another name for Restricted area? Controlled area
Which organization established the 10-day Rule? ICRP
Who is responsible for describing the All or None rule? Bushong
Describe the All or None rule? ...
What is the 10 - 25 Rule? Doses less than 10 rad= never terminate a pregnancy over 25 rad= termination of pregnancy should be considered
ARS - what is another name? Radiation sickness
Name the stages of ARS? 1- prodromal 2- latent 3- manifest illness 4- recovery or death
Name the 3 stages of Stage 3? hematopoietic -gastrointestinal -CNS syndrome
Another name for Hematologic Syn? Bone marrow syndrome
Exposure dose for Prodromal? As low as 50 rad, usually 100 rad
Exposure dose for Hematologic? 100-1000 rad
Exposure dose for GI? 600-5000+ rad
Exposure dose for CNS? 5000 rad
1st 3 Sx of ARS? Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
Cells of the skin most radiosensitive? Basal cells
Layer of the skin most radiosensitive? Inner layer of the epidermis
Layer of the skin involve if epilation occurs? Dermis- where hair follicles are
Exposure dose for Erythema? 200 rad
Stages of skin reaction to radiation? Erythema (reddening of the skin), desquamation (Dry skin and hair loss) moist desquamation (peeling of skin w/pus) epilation (hair loss temporary or permanent)
Decreased sperm count? 10 rad
Delayed menstruation? 10 rad
Temporary Sterility? 250 rad
Permanent Sterility? 500-600rad
Impotence? 3000 rad
Hematologic Depression? 25 rad
4 types of blood cells? Lymphocytes, granulocytes, thrombocytes, erythrocytes
What is the definition of radiolysis? Breakdown by radiation of water in the cell
What is epidemiology? observational study of the distribution and causes of disease in human populations
Name at least 5 cancers that can be caused by radiation; with the 1st choice being the most probable? leukemia, osteosarcoma, lung, thyroid, breast
What is a relative risk model? predicts that excess cancers rise as natural cancers increase with advancing age
What is an absolute risk model? specific number of excess cancers will occur as a result of radiation exposure
Latent period for Leukemia? 5-7 years
Latent period for thyroid cancer? 10 years
How many types of Leukemia are there? 4
Which one typically affects children? acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
Lung cancer can be caused by what type of exposure? - ...
Most cancers have what type of dose response curve? linear non-threshold
Skin cancer has what type of dose response curve? non-linear, threshold
Recent studies indicate the mean glandular dose for a mammogram is? 0.7m msV - 1msV per view
What type of cell is more radiosensitive - spermatogonia or oogonia? spermatogonia
What part of the heart is most radiosensitive? - ...
What is more radiosensitive - bone or cartilage? bone
Genetic damage (mutations) have what type of dose response curve? linear, non-threshold
GSD must take into account what? gonadal dose per exam, # of people receiving xray exams, # in population, # of expected future children
During Preimplantation how much exposure would terminate the pregnancy? 5-15 rad
What is the time frame for preimplantation? 0 to 9 days
What is the time frame for organogenesis? 10 days to 6 weeks
A fetus can develop leukemia if exposed to how much radiation? - ...
A fetus can develop congenital malformations if exposed to how much? >20 rad
HVL Below 50 kvp 0.5mm Al eq.
HVL 50 to 70 kvp 1.5mm Al eq.
HVL >70 kvp 2.5mm Al eq.
Source to skin distance Stationary fluoro 15" (38cm)
Source to skin distance Mobile fluoo 12" (30cm)
Primary Barrier and give ex. 1/16" (1.6)Pb eq.
floor, wall, mobile shield
Secondary Barrier and give ex. 1/32"
control booth, lead aprons, ceiling, lead gloves
What is the definition of Use Factor? the amount of time the beam is on & directed at a particular barrier
What is the definition of Workload? the volume of types of exams performed in the exam room per week
Film badge sensitivity? 10mrem- 500mrem
TLD sensitivity? 5 mrem
OSL sensitivity 1 mrem
NCRP Report #116 Occupational Dose equivalents: ...
Annual whole body 5 rem or 50 mSv
Annual Lens 15 rem or 150 mSv
Annual Skin = Annual whole body (Public) 50 rem or 500 mSv
Pregnant employee 0.5 rem or 5 mSv
How do you calculate Cumulative Effective Dose (CED)? age in rem or age x 10 in mSv
3 most effective means of controlling ionizing radiation? time, distance, shielding
Name a type of mechanical holding device? Pigg-O-stat, straps, sandbags, tape, foam wedges
1 rad equals how many cGy 1 cGy
1 rem equals how many mSv 10 mSv
When holding a pt it is best to stand at what angle from the primary beam? 90 degrees
Lead apron covers how much of the active bone marrow? 80%
Lead apron lead equivalent? 0.5 mm
Lead apron at 75 kvp attenuates? 90% of photons
Checking for cracks? use fluoro or shoot at 125 kVp
Portable cord length? ___feet How many meters? 6 feet or 2 meters
Scatter event reduces exposure by what factor? 1/1000 @ meter or 3 feet
Fluoro timer limit is how many minutes? 5 minutes
Another name for scatter at 90 degrees? side scatter
Direction of most of the scatter that is generated? back scatter
Difference between mammo filters & x-ray filters? mammo filters out low and high energy photons, x-ray (Al) filters out low
When would a trough filter be used? chest
When would a wedge filter be used? foot
Inherent filtration is how much & give example? 0.5mm Al window, glass envelope, oil
Grid ratio: 5:1 Scatter removal 80-85%
8:1 Scatter removal 90%
12:1 Scatter removal 96%
Name a view in which an air gap technique could be used? c-spine
Purpose of beam limitation? limit beam to lower pt. dose and improve image quality
Name 3 type of beam limitation devices? collimator, cones, cylinders, aperture diaphragm
What is the M/C beam limitation device? collimator w/ adjustable shutters
When should you shield a pt? within 5cm of nads, 50 and younger and the shield is not in the way of the anatomy
Male - landmark used for shielding? Pubic symphysis
Female - landmark used for shielding? ASIS 1" medial
Male shielding reduces gonadal dose by? 90-95%
Female shielding reduces gonadal dose by? 50%
Name 3 types of gonad shields? flat, shaped, shadow, clear
Give an example of involuntary motions? peristalsis, heart movement
Give an example of a view most commonly repeated? abdomen, L-spine, skull and pelvis
ESE for Abd 300 mrad
ESE for CXR 15 mrad
ESE for AP L-Spine 350 mrad
ESE for APLC 80 mrad
NCRP Report #102: ...
Thickness of fluoro curtain 0.25mm Pb
Max Tabletop thickness 1mm Al
Max Fluoro tabletop exposure rate 10 R/min
Lead apron 0.5mm Pb
Gloves 0.25mm Pb
Mobile/ source to skin distance 12 inches (30cm)
Fixed/ source to skin distance 15 inches (38cm)
osting of warning sign 5mR/hr
Max leakage from tube housing 100 mR/Hr at 1 Meter
Length of exposure switch for portable 6 feet or 2 meters
What is the hemopoietic system? blood, bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymphnodes
Other names for immature cells? precursor cells, stem cells, undifferentiated
Primary source of exposure to the RT is from? compton scatter from pt.
What is the EqD of 0.2 Gy of alpa particles? 0.2 x 20 = 4 Sv
What is the EqD of 10 rad of x-ray? 10 rem or 0.1Sv
Annual whole body occupational exposure is 5000 mrem 5 rem
Annual occupational dose limit for the lens of the eye is 15,000 mrem 15 rem
Annual occupational dose limit for the skin, hands, & feet is 50 rem 50,000 mrem
Annual whole body exposure to the general public is 0.1 rem 100 mrem
Annual dose limit to a pregnant employee is 500 mrem 0.5 rem
CXR has an ESE of 16 rad 0.16 Gy
Abd had an ESE of 300 mrad 3 mGy
AP L-Spine has an ESE of 350 mrad 3.5 mGy
APLC has an ESE of 80 mrad 0.8 mGy
Molybdenum & Rhodium filters are used in what? mammography
What's another name for stem cells? precursor cells
What is another name for Deterministic Effects? non-stochastic
What is another name for Stochastic Effect? non-deterministic (random)
A relationship with no threshold and a squared response is called? linear quadratic
A common method used to estimate an exposure dose to a patient without using a patient would be? ESE
Entrance skin exposure, bone marrow dose, and gonadal dose may be used to indicate? ways to measure radiation dose received for those parts
What types of cancer have a latent period of 5 to 7 yrs? leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, non-solid state cancers
What type of cancer has shown a latent period of 2 yrs? leukemia can start
What types of cancer have a latent period of over 10 yrs? thyroid, lung, breast, osteosarcoma