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Pshychology-rtc

RTC, pshychology

TermDefinition
ID Operates pleasure principle, the baby, "I want"
Ego Reality principle/balancer, delays satisfaction, The Negotiator
Superego Morality principle, feelings of guilt, "I should" (parents, teachers, peers)
ID unconscious
Ego Unconscious and Preconscious
Superego Preconscious and Unconscious
ID Born with, baby
Preconscious Not totally aware of, but can be if you think about it
Conscious Things are you are aware of -
unconscious Not aware of, just do/react- drives, urges, insticts
Ego tools: denial, reaction, projection, regression
Superego conscious, ethical standards, rules, internalized rules
quantitative research done on a large scale, information/data can be put into hard numbers, outcomes are predicitive behaviours
correlation is what type of research quantitative
experiment is what type of research quantitative
phenomenological is what type of research qualitative
grounded theory is what type of research qualitative
ethnography is what type of research qualitative
what is qualtitative research subjective, understand, individual, holisitic, verbal, emergent
what type of research starts with a theory quantitative
what type of research has the theory come from the research qualitative
What is emergent? Emergent is when a new theory or idea comes from the research.
Expirement research studies.... cause and effect
Correlation research studies.... the relationship between two things
Phenomenological research... studies subjective human behavior, is done usually by interview, transcribe and compared to other interviews
Grounded Theory.... studies behavior and is developed through watching the experiences of individuals
Ethnography.... is the study of a culture from within that culture
ID, Superego and Ego (having a conversation) ID: wants Starbucks, Superego: Not wise, Ego:one a week
ID-----------EGO-----------Superego EGO is the balancer
Allport (the 3) Cardinal, Central, Secondary
Cardinal One main trait, so obvious cannot be ignored, most don't have one (Chauvinistic)
Central Everyone has 5 to 10. They are your most outstanding personality traits and are rather consistent.
Secondary everyone has many, change and blend into our central traits (habits, music preferences)
Cattell 35! Cattell took 4500 and reduced to 35. (23 normal and 12 pathological)
What is factor analysis? statistical procedure to sift mountains of information to most important information
Eysenck 3! Extrovert/introvert, neuroticism and psychoticism
What did McCrae and Costa create? The Ocean!
OCEAN Openness, conscientiousness, extrovert, agreeableness, euroticism
What model did McCrea and Costa create? FFM
FFM stands for? Five Factor Model
The Five Factor Model is? O,C,E,A,N
Openness practical vs. imaginative
Conscientiousness careless vs. careful
extrovert/introvert loner vs. joiner
agreeableness suspicious vs. trusting
neuroticism calm vs. worried
Environment Factors that impact life, situations you find yourself in, how your parents treat you, culture, peers....
Bandura Learning history, expectations and beliefs
Reciprocal Determinism interaction between self and environment
Self-efficacy learned expectations of successs
Maslow's heirarchy needs (5) Physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization
Maslow believed that you must have one level before you can move onto the next
Physiological water, food, air, warmth
Saftey feel secure, safe, seek (seek pleasure avoid pain)
Love to feel accepted, affiliation, give and receive affection
Esteem to acheive, be confident, gain approval, excel
Self-actualization very few get here, live life to fullest, realize one's own, full potential (Ghandi, MLK)
Rogers...con? Congruence and Incongruence
Congruence reality and self concept are in harmony
incongruence reality and self concept are far apart
How can we measure personality? Interviews, observations, objective tests, projective tests
Interviews structured, unstructured
Observations looking for a specific behavior
objective tests standardized surverys, limited # of options for answers
projective tests ambiguous, unstructered stimuli
*social emotional development four levels of attachment; secure, insecure avoidant, insecure ambivalent, insecure-disorganized (think stranger research)
*Secure child will be with caregiver (cg), Cg goes away and child cries, cg returns baby happy and goes to cg
*secure child as an adult... will have a sense of trust and vulnerability
*insecure avoidant child will Doesn't care if cg leaves room, doesn't seek contact with cg, treats stranger the same, (cg doesn't respond to child's needs)
*Insecure avoidant child as an adult... won't get into deep relationships as an adult
*Insecure ambivilant child will... child clings, preoccupied with cg, cg leaves child unhappy, cg returns child to cg but may hit (needs are sometimes met, sometimes not)
*insecure ambivilant as an adult love/hate
*insecure-disorganized child cautious w/cg, cg leaves child scared, cg returns child acts oddly may screan, throw self on floor, hit self, apprehensive with cg
*insecure-disorganized as an adults not reflected (they don't grow up to be abusers)
nueroticism anxious, inward, depressed
psyhociticism aggresive, cold, tend to go outward
*Why is attachment important to human development? Attachment effects their social, emotional, cognitive and language.
*Attachment impacts us as adults because infants who secure grow up to have realtionships that endure, perceive others as trustful while insecure infants have hard time with self-disclosure and trust.
Cognitive Development Sensorimotor, Preoperational, concrete operation, formal operation
Sensorimotor is what? learning the world through exploration and motor activities
sensorimotor is what age? birth to 2 years.
Preoperational is what? execlerated use of language and symbols, words represent concepts
Preoperational age? 2 to 7 years
Concrete Operation is waht Less egocentric, capable of logical thinking
concrete operation age 7-11
Formal operation can think abstractly and hypothetically
formal operation age 11 and up
One important aspect of teen brain development Their prefrontal cortex is not developed
Women and menopause, what happens? stop menstruating and decrease estrogen
myth that menopause causes psychological mood swings, loss of sexual interest, or major depression
Andropause Men- gradual decline in sperm/testosterone
Population refers to the group of people that are involved in the study
*Frued's three structures of personality Id, Ego and Superego. Id (wants), Superego (should, rules, guilt), Ego (balancer between ID and superego, negotiator)
Pshycodynamic Frued's three sturctures of personality, ID, Ego and Superego
*Hamanisitic....who gave us research Maslow
*How many are in Maslow's heirarchy needs Five
*What are Maslow's five heirarchy needs? Pysiologicial, safety, love, esteem and self-actualization.
*Social emotional development has how many levels? four
*Social emotional development's four levels of? attachment
*What are the four levels of social and emotional development secure, insecure avoidant, insecure ambivalent, insecure-disorganized
What are Erik Erikson's 8 stages? trust v. mistrust, autonomy v. shame/doubt, initiative v. guilt, industry v. inferiority, identity v. role confusion, intimacy v. isolation, generativity v. stagnation, ego integrity v. despair
Erikson stage one trust vs. mistrust age birth 1, learn to trust needs met, important event, feeding; conflict - baby depends on cg if needs not met, baby may never develop essential trust of others, which is necessary to get along in the world
Erikson stage two Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt ages 1-3, develope sense of personal control (potty training), cg encouragment foster sense of autonomy vs shame/doubt. Success lead to autonomy, falure leads to feelings of shame/doubt.
Erikson stage three: Initiative vs. guilt explore the world by manipulating environment, ages 3-6, important-exploration, conflict-supportive cg promote power and self-confidents, wherease too much power dissproval results in guilt.
Erikson stage four Industry vs. Inferiority ages 6-12, develope industry and learn important skills that culture requires, event - school, conflict fail lessons of mastery and competence feel inadequate/inferior
Erikson stage five: identity vs Role confusion age 12-19, developing sense of role in society, event - peers more important, confict - good sense of role/identity poor, unable to make decisions or plan for future
Erikson stage six: Intimacy vs. Isolation 21-45, share yourself w/another, form intimate, loveing relationships, event - relationships, conflict - may face isolation/self-absorption
Erikson stage seven: Generativist vs. stagnation 45-70, concern for next generation, things that will outlast them, event- work and parenting, conflict, complacency, selfishness, materialism
Erikson stage eight (finally!): ego integrity vs. despair 70 - death period of reflection; conflicts from previous stages impact how one reflects on his/her life, event-reflection on life, conflict - ? riddled with regret/fear of death
Top Five regrets of the dying courage to live a life true to self, hadn't worked so hard, courage to express feelings, stayed in touch w/friends, let myself be happier