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Pharm Exam 1 for Wed

WSU DPT Pharmacology Exam 1 - everything

QuestionAnswer
Ends in "azosin" A1 blockers HTN, BPH
Ends in "olol" B1 blockers HTN (don't allow for incr HR and force of contraction)
Ends in "pril" ACE-inhibitors inhibit conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2 (a vasoconstrictor that inhibits bradykinin)
Ends in "pine" Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs) HTN; inhibit Ca entrance into smooth muscles surrounding blood vessels (vasodilators); also good for Raynaud's Disease
Ends in "artan" Angiotensin2 Receptor Blockers (ARBs) HTN, work similarly to ACE-Is
Ends in "ide" Loop Diuretics fluid management, HTN. Know furosemide; will need K+ supplement
Ends in "zide" Thiazide Diuretics Vasodilator: Chronic HTN, mild to moderate edema; mild diuretic
Ends in "mine" Cholinesterase Inhibitors Stops AChE from shutting off ACh (resulting in an increase)
Ends in "statin" Statins (HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors) to lower cholesterol (decrease LDLs and increase HDLs); M/M - CV death, stroke; Atorvastatin - decr LDL by 60%; Pleotropic: plaque stability, inflammation, thrombosis
Ends in "glitinide" Meglitinides hypoglycemic, similar to sulfonylurias
Ends in "gliptin" DPP4 inhibitors hypoglycemic (diabetes)
Ends in "zone" Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) hypoglycemic (diabetes)
Ends in "tide" GLP-1 Receptor Agonists (exenatide) hypoglycemic (diabetes)
Ends in "xacin" Fluoroquine (FQs) antibiotics
Contains "grel" ADP inhibitors
Contains "fibr" Fibrates hypercholesterolemia; improved M/M but not as strong as statins. Can incr risk of myopathy when taken with statins; good for decr Tg with statins
starts with "gl", ends with "ide" Sulfonylureas hypoglycemic (diabetes)
New Oral Anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban -different than Warfarin: more expensive, don't interact with Vitamin K
Diabetes Prevention Antiplatelet drugs, ACE, ARB, statins, antihypertensives
Increase BG B-Blockers, corticosteroids, oral decongestants, antipsychotics
Nitrates Venous dilators Angina, CHF
SL Nitroglycerin Acute angina
Negative inotropes B-Blockers, Cardiac CCBs (verapamil, diltiazem) Cardiac CCBs: atrial fibrilation, tachycardia
Na+ and water retention NSAIDs, COX 2-Inhibitors, corticosteroids
Albuterol corticosteroid
Carvedilol B1, B2, A1 blocker HTN, heart failure
Cholinesterase Inhibitors (MG) Muscarinic Agonists (indirect acting),(incr ACh levels), Myasthenia gravis edrophonium, neostigmine, pyridostigmine, physostigmine
Cholinesterase Inhibitors (AD) Muscarinic Agonists (indirect acting),(incr ACh levels), Alzheimer's Dementia donepezil, rivastigmine galantamine
Anticholinergic Side Effects Dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention, constipation, tachycardia, CNS: memory loss, confusion, restlessness, agitation, hallucination, delirium
atropine (4) Muscarinic Antagonist Antidote for anticholinergic agonists, Antispasmodic and antidiarrheal, Cardiac arrest/"code blue", Opthalmic-mydriatic (eye exams/surgery)
scopolomine Muscarinic Antagonist Anti-motion sickness
hyoscyamine Muscarinic Antagonist GI spasms, irritable bowel, spastic bladder
bethanecol Muscarinic Agonist (direct acting) Binds directly to ACh receptors -atonic bladder & urinary retention -increases GI motility
Drugs that worsen HTN corticosteroids, NSAIDs/COX 2-inhibitors, contraceptives, oral decongestants, nicotine, herbals
Drugs that treat HTN A2 agonists, A1 blockers, B blockers (selective and nonselective, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, CCBs (2), diuretics (3)
Clonidine A2 agonist decrease release of norepinephrine
Acebutolol B1-blocker can cause Intrinsic Sympathomimetic Activity (ISA). Rarely used. No M/M benefits
Gout Excessive levels of uric acid caused by diuretics (loop, thiazide)
Ends in "one" Potassium sparing diuretics (Aldosterone Blockers) only increase urine production 2% (like ACE and ARB), HTN, prevention of Hypokalemia, management of HF
Potassium intracellular, regulates cell membrane, action potential Hyper/Hypokalemia: muscle weakness, cramps, paresthesias, hypotension, ECG changes, bradycardia, AV block, heart may stop
Orthostatic Hypotension dizziness or fainting from seating or lying position from blood pooling in perifery; all BP drugs can cause Midodrine: A1 agonist (vasoconstrictor); Fludrocortisone: mineralocorticoid that incr salt/fluid retention. Strengthen calf muscles, wear compression stockings
Digoxin Congestive Heart Failure: positive inotrope; does not improve survival blocks Na/K pump to keep Ca in cells to make ventricle stronger; works for A Fib too
Hydralazine arterial dilator CHF
Spironolactone Aldosterone blocker, blocks RAAS, decr mortality CHF
Aspirin (ASA) Antiplatelet NSAID; low dose better than high (high inhibits another natural antiplatelet in body)
Deep Vein Thrombosis treatment Heparins and ICDs (intermittent pneumonic compression devices)
Signs of PE chest pain, breathlessness, apprehension (doom), fever, cough
heparin: enoxaparin (LMWH) anticoagulant: binds to antithrombin and then to clotting factors Xa to stop coagulation; must monitor aPTT prophylaxis of VTE (DVT, PE, ACS, ischemic stroke); does not dissolve clot
Antiplatelets Aspirin, Aggrenox, ADP inhibitors
Anticoagulants Heparins, Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) - oral Anticoagulant: blocks Vitamin K in liver from helping produce clotting factors. Better for longterm than heparins Antidote is Vitamin K injection; *NSAIDs, herbals are contraindicated; monitored with PT INR; S/S: blood in urine and stool - lots of blood
Cholesterol Drugs statins, niacin, fibrates, bile acid-binding resins, Ezetimide
Niacin (nicotinic acid) cholesterol improve M/M, bad ADRs, flushing, muscle myopathy
Hyperglycemia 90% deaths for diabetics Microvascular complications (blindness, kidney disease, peripheral neuropathy, gastroparesis). Macrovascular complications (HTN, heart disease, ischemic stroke, atherosclerosis, peripheral vascular disease)
Biguanides Oral Hypoglycemic: Metformin Type 2 diabetes, reduces M/M
alpha-glucosidase stop sugar from entering bloodstream hypoglycemic (diabetes). Taken with first bite of food; lots of side effects (GI)
Insulin Very Rapid: Lispro (Humalog), Aspart (Novolog), Glulisine (Apidra); Rapid: Regular; Intermediate: NPH, Basal: Determir, Glargine
DKA (Impending diabetic ketoacidosis) ketones in urine, affects acidity in blood, pH and electrolytes out of whack
Created by: johndbabb25