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# Positioning Ch 20-22

### Final Exam Review from Class

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What bones make up the cranial floor? | Left & Right Temporal, Sphenoid, & Ethmoid bone |

Which projection(s) is best for demonstrating medial and lateral displacement of the mandibular rami? | PA & PA Axial (Mandibular Rami) |

The Central Ray will pass through the level of the EAM on which projection of the skull? | AP Axial (Townes) |

The fibrous joints of the face and skull are called ____________. | Sutures |

Which projection will best demonstrate the floor of the orbits? | Modified Parietoacanthial (Modified Waters) |

Where is the Coronal Suture located? | Between the Frontal and both parietal bones |

What line is perpendicular to the IR for the AP Axial projection of the Zygomatic Arch? | OML |

What line is parallel and which line is perpendicular to the IR for the lateral projection of the skull? | IOML is Perpendicular to the front edge of the IR; Interpupillary line Perpendicular to the plane of the IR |

Which bone is of primary interest in a Blowout Fracture? | Maxillary |

What structure should be projected below the Maxillary sinus for a Waters Projection? | Petrous Ridge |

The Central Ray is perpendicular to what line for the SMV projection of the Zygomatic Arches? | IOML |

What suture is located between the Occipital and Parietal bones? | Lambdoidal |

If performing a Reverse Waters on a patient unable to hyperextend the neck, the Central Ray should be parallel to what line? | MML |

What is the junction between the Occipital bone, Parietal bone, and Mastoid process? | Asterion |

What is the Central Ray angle for the AP Axial projection of the TemporalMandibular Articulation (TMJ)? | 35 degrees Caudad (enters 3" above nasion) |

The Law (or modified Law method) for the TMJ is what kind of projection? | Axiolateral Oblique Projection |

What is the Central Ray angle and entrance point for the Law method of the TMJ? | 15º Caudad Entering 1½" Superior to the upside EAM |

How is the head positioned for the Law Method of the TMJ? | AML Horizontal and parallel to the transverse axis of the IR; MSP of the head rotated 15 degrees toward the IR |

What line should be perpendicular to the plane of the IR for the Waters method? | MML |

What are the bones of the Calvaria? | Frontal, Left & Right Parietal, Occipital |

What suture is located between the Parietal and Temporal Bones? | Squamosal |

If the patient cannot be placed in the upright position for the paranasal sinuses, what is the next best position? | Dorsal Decubitus for the lateral sinuses (since lateral will demonstrate all 4 sinus groups) |

What is the central ray angle for the Caldwell projection of the skull? | 15° Caudad to exit the nasion |

For the Townes method projection of the skull, is the IOML is perpendicular to the IR what is the central ray angle? | 37° Caudad (entering 2.5" above the glabella) |

The Haas Method is a ___________ projection of the skull with a CR angle of _________ entering where? | PA Axial; 25° Cephalad; Enters 1.5" below External Occipital Protuberance and exits 1.5" above nasion |

How many facial bones are there? | 14 |

What is the Central Ray angle for the PA Axial projection of the Mandibular Rami? | 20-25° Cephalad to exit the Acanthion |

What is the Central Ray angle for the Reverse Waters Projection? | Perpendicular (0°) or Parallel to the MML |

What line should be parallel to the IR for the SMV projection of the Zygomatic Arches? | IOML |

Where does the Central Ray enter for the SMV projection of the Skull? | Along the MSP at a level 3/4" anterior to the EAM |

For the Caldwell projection of the skull, what line should be perpendicular to the IR? | OML |

How is the Central Ray positioned for a Tangential Projection of the Zygomatic Arches? | Perpendicular to the IOML & centered to the zygomatic arch at a point 1" posterior to the outer canthus. |

For the SMV projection of the Cranial Base, the Central Ray is perpendicular to what line? | IOML |

How many bones in the cranial group? | 8 |

If the IOML is parallel to the IR what is the Central Ray angle for the SMV projection? | Perpendicular or 0° |

Where does the Central Ray exit for the Waters projection? | Acanthion |

For the Axiolateral Oblique projection for the mandible, how is the head positioned to demonstrate the body of the mandible? | 30° toward the IR |

For the Axiolateral Oblique projection for the mandible, how is the head positioned to demonstrate the ramus? | True lateral |

For the Axiolateral Oblique projection for the mandible, how is the head positioned to demonstrate the symphysis? | Rotated 45 degrees toward the IR |

The Tangential projection for the Zygomatic Arch the Central Ray is perpendicular to what and enters where? | Perpendicular to the IOML; Enters 1" Posterior to the outer canthus on the side being examined |

The Sagittal suture is between what? | Both parietal bones |

For the SMV projection for the Zygomatic Arches the Central Ray enters where? | ⊥ to IOML, & entering MSP of the throat at a level 1" Posterior to the outer Canthus |

For a PA projection of the skull, where does the Central Ray enter? | ⊥ to exit the Nasion |

How many bones in the skull? And how many in each group? | 22; 8 Cranial & 14 Facial |

For the Townes projection of the Cranium, if the OML is not ⊥ to the IR what line should be ⊥ to the IR? | IOML |

What bone is of interest for a Tripod Fracture? | Zygoma |

The Lambda is the junction of what? | The Lambda and Sagittal sutures (where both parietal bones and the Occipital bone meet) |

For a lateral projection of the facial bones, the Central ray enters where? | Along the lateral surface of the Zygomatic bone midway between the Outer Canthus and the EAM |

For the PA Axial projection of the Skull, the Central Ray will exit where? | The Nasion |

For both the PA and PA Axial (Caldwell) projection of the skull, what should be touching the IR? | Forehead and Nose |

For the SMV projection of the Cranial Base, what line should be parallel to the IR? | IOML |

What is the respiration phase for all projections of the Facial Bones and Paranasal Sinuses? | Suspended |

The Schuller method for the TMJ is a ______________________ projection. | Axiolateral |

How is the MSP of the head positioned for the Schuller method projection of the TMJ articulation? | MSP Parallel with the plane of the IR (Interpupillary line ⊥ to IR) |

For the Tangential Projection of the Zygomatic Arch, how is the head tilted and which way? | MSP rotated 15 degrees & Head tilted 15 degrees toward the side of interest |

The Haas method is a _______________ projection of the cranium. | PA Axial |

What is the Central Ray angle and entrance for the Haas method? | 25 Degrees Cephalad; Enters 1.5" below External Occipital protuberance and exits 1.5" above Nasion |

How is the MSP positioned for the SMV projection? | Perpendicular to the IR |

What is the Central Ray angle for the AP Axial projection of the Zygomatic Arches? | 30 Degrees Caudad entering 1" above the nasion |

What line should be perpendicular to the IR for the Townes projection? | OML & MSP |

What is the Central Ray angle for the Axiolateral Oblique projection for the Mandible? | 25 Degrees Cephalad |

How is the Central Ray and IR positioned for the lateral projection of the skull? | Centered 2" above the EAM |

For the lateral projection of the Skull, what line is perpendicular to the plane of the IR? | Interpupillary Line |

What line should be perpendicular to the IR for the AP Axial projection of the TMJ articulation? | OML & MSP |

What line should be perpendicular to the front edge of the IR for a lateral projection of the Skull? | IOML |

Which projections will demonstrate BOTH Zygomatic Arches? | SMV and AP Axial |

Where will the Petrous Ridges appear on a Waters projections for the Sinuses? | Immediately below the Maxillary Sinuses |

Created by:
foster1317