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Behavioral- EPSY6325

Behavioral Approach-EPSY 6325 Arbona

Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) If you pair a conditioned stimulus to a natural stimulus, after time, the conditioned stimulus produces the same response as the natural one through LEARNING BY ASSOCIATION
Systematic Desensitization (Wolpe) Part of classical conditioning that treats anxiety by pairing a stimulus that causes anxiety with a state of relaxation to break the connection between the stimulus and the anxious response. least anxiety arousing --> most anxiety arousing
Skinner: Radical Behaviorism a)Placed primary emphasis in the role of the environment in producing behavior, b)Applied learning principles to psych, c)Developed theory primarily working with rats
Skinner Stimulus from the environment --> Reaction (environmental consquence) = Behavior
Operant Conditioning Focuses on actions that operate on the environment to produce consequence: a)Reinforcing increases probability that the behavior will be repeated; b)No reinforcement or a punishment decreases probability of the behavior being repeated
Reinforcement Increases behavior
Punishment Decreases behavior
Positive (reinforcement and punishment) Add a stimulus
Negative (reinforcement and punishment) Takes away a stimulus
Positive Reinforcement Adds a pleasant consquence
Negative Reinforcement Takes away a aversive/bad stimulus
Positive Punishment Adds a aversive/bad stimulus/consequence
Negative Punishment Takes away a positive stimulus
Lack of consequence Decreases behavior
Extinction Withholding reinforcement from a preciously reinforced response. Eliminates certain behaviors but does not replace previously reinforced responses.
Positive Reinforcement A child earns good grades in school and is praised by her parents for all her hard work and studying. If the child values the praise, she will most likely continue studying hard in the future.
Negative Reinforcement John's BMW makes an annoying beeping sound when he has not put on his seat belt. In order to stop this annoying sound, John always puts on his seat belt as soon as he gets in the car.
Positive Punishment Sharon cam home 15 minutes past her curfew, so her parents gave her more chores for the next two weeks. To not receive more chores in the future, Sharon will most likely not come home late.
Negative Punishment Because Cameron hit his little brother, his parents took away his TV privileges for 3 days.
Extinction Bobby has temper tantrums and his parents give him attention during the tantrums, thus reinforcing the behavior. Recently, Bobby's parents have been ignoring Bobby's tantrums. Bobby eventually stops having temper tantrums.
Behavior Therapy Today a)Person is product and producer of his/her environment; b)Uses a systematic and STRUCTURED approach to counseling; c)Emphasizes changing OVERT(observable) behaviors and solving specific problems vs. gaining insight
Behavior Therapy Today a)Clients are expected to assume an active role in therapy; b)Emphasizes the assessment of effectiveness of interventions; c)Applied Behavioral Analyses: assessment of environmental contingencies of behaviors
Behavior Therapy Today a)Based on overt behaviors, b)short-term, c) specific goals/structures, d) active therapist and active client
Systematic Desensitization Clients imagine successively more anxiety-arousing situations at the same times that they engage in a behavior that competes with anxiety. Gradually, clients become less sensitive to the anxiety-arousing situation.
Systematic Desensitization Comes from classical conditioning. Can be used with relaxation training and anxiety hierarchy
Aversive Counter Conditioning Positive Punishment and rarely used today. The nasty tasting nail polish that is supposed to keep kids from biting their nails is an example.
Exposure Techniques In vivo desensitization and Flooding (in vivo or imaginary)
In vivo desensitization Using the anxiety hierarchy to face the anxiety in small steps. Starting with the least anxiety provoking behavior and moving to the most anxiety provoking behavior concerning the actual anxiety provoking event.
In Vivo Flooding Intense and prolonged exposure to the actual anxiety producing stimuli.
Imaginary Flooding Imaginal exposure to the anxiety producing stimulus for a prolonged period of time.
Systematic desensitization Calvin has a fear of spiders. At the bottom of his anxiety hierarchy is looking at a picture of a spider. At the top is touching a spider. Calvin pairs relaxation training while working through his hierarchy starting at the bottom and working to the top.
Aversive Counter Conditioning Pam bites her nails. Her parents make her paint her nails with no bite nail polish which will leave a bitter taste in Pam's mouth after she bites her nails. Pam will then associate the bitter taste with biting her nails and stop the behavior.
In vivo flooding Indiana Jones is extremely afraid of snakes. To break his fear, his therapist throws him in a snake pit during one of his missions.
Imaginary Flooding Beth is afraid of flying. Without working toward her biggest fear of airplanes slowly, her therapist first makes her imagine being in a plane and it crashing.
Contingency Contract a formal agreement between a psychotherapist and a patient undergoing behavior therapy that outlines the behavior change goals, reinforcements and rewards that will be given, and the penalties for failing to meet the demands of the agreement.
Contributions a)Wide variety of specific behavioral techniques. b)Emphasis on research and assessment of treatment outcomes. c)clients have control and freedom to decide the goals of therapy and what behavior they want to change
Limitations a)Changes behavior, but does not change feelings. b)Does not provide insight. c)Treats symptoms rather than causes. d)The therapist has control and social influence
Created by: bseal023