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Business Management

TermDefinition
Vision A mental image of the possible and desirable future state of the organization
Supervisory Leadership behavior that provides guidance, support, and corrective feedback for day to day activities
strategic leadership behavior that gives purpose and meaning to organizations, envisioning and creating a positive future.
power the ability to influence others
trait approach leadership perspective that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share
behavioral approach leadership perspective that attempts to identify what good leaders do
task performance behaviors actions taken to ensure that the work group or organization reaches its goals
group maintenance behaviors actions taken to ensure the satisfaction of group members, develop and maintain harmonious work relationships, and preserve the social stability of the group
LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE theory highlights the importance of leader behaviors not just toward the group as a whole but toward individuals on a personal basis
participation in decision making leader behaviors that managers perform in involving their employees in making decisions
autocratic leadership leader makes decisions
democratic leadership where the leader gets input from subordinates
laissez-faire Absence of managerial decision making
situational approach theory where effective leaders vary from situation to situation
Vroom Model situational model that focuses on the participative dimension of leadership
Fiedlers contingency model of leadership effectiveness situational approach to leadership postulating that effectiveness depends on the personal style of the leader and the degree to which the situation gives the leader power, control, and influence of the situation
task-motivated leadership leadership that places primary emphasis on completing a task
relationship=motivated leadership leadership that places primary emphasis on maintaining good interpersonal relationships
hersey and blanchards situational theory life-cycle theory of leadership postulating that a manager should consider an employees psychological and job maturity before deciding whether task perfomance or maintenance behaviors are more important
job maturity level of the employees skills and technical knowledge relative to the task being performed
psychological maturity employees self confidence and self respect
path goal theory theory that concerns how leaders influence subordinates perceptions of their work goals and the paths they follow toward attainment of those goals
substitutes for leadership factors in the workplace that can start exert the same influence on employees as leaders would provide
charismatic leader a person who is dominant, self-confident, convinced of the moral righteousness of his or her beliefs, and able to arouse a sense of excitement and adventure in followers
transformational leader a leader who motivates people to transcend their personal interests for the good of the group
transactional leaders leaders who manage through transactions, using their legitimate, reward, and coercive powers to give commands and exchange rewards for services rendered
Level 5 leadership a combination of strong professional will and humility that builds enduring greatness
authentic leadership a style in wihch the leader is true to himself or herself while leading
pseudo-transformational leaders leaders who talk about positive change but allow their self-interest to take precedence over followers needs
servant leader leader who serves others' needs while strengthening the organization
bridge leaders a leader who bridges conflicting value systems or different cultures
shared leadership rotating leadership
lateral leadership style in which colleagues at the same hierarchical level are invited to collaborate and facilitate joint problem solving
motivation forces that energize, direct, and sustain a persons efforts
goal-setting theory a motivation theory stating that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end
stretch goals targets that are particularly demanding
law of effect law by Edward Thorndike, stated that behavior that is followed by positive consequences will likely be repeated
reinforcers positive consequences that motivated behavior
organizational behavior modification application of reinforcement theory in organizational settings
positive reinforcement increasing the likelihood that a person will repeat the behavior that led to it
negative reinforcement removing or withholding an undesirable consequence
punishment administering an aversive consequence
extinction withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence
expectancy theory a theory proposing that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome
expectancy employees perception of the likelihood that their efforts will enable them to attain their performance goals
outcome consequence a person receives for his or her performance
instrumentality perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome
valence the value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it
Maslow's need hierarchy conception of human needs organizing needs into a hierarchy of five major types
Alderfer's ERG theory human needs theory postulating that people have three basic sets of needs that can operate simultaneously
extrinsic rewards rewards given by the boss or company
intrinsic rewards reward a worker derives directly from performing the job itself
job rotation changing from one routine to another to alleviate boredom
job enlargement giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom
job enrichment changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding
two-factor theory herzbergs theory describing two factors affecting peoples work motivation and satisfaction
hygiene factor characteristics of the workplace, such as company policies, working conditions, pay, and supervision that can make people dissatisfied
motivators factors that make a job more motivating
growth need strength degree to which individuals want personal and psychological development
empowerment process of sharing power with employees thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their belief that they are influential contributors to the organization
equity theory a theory stating that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors; outcomes and inputs.
procedural justice using fair process in decision making and making sure others know what the process was as fair as possible
Quality of work life programs programs designed to create a workplace that enhances employee well-being
psychological contract set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers and what their employers owe them
Human resources management formal systems for the management of people within an organization
human capital knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees that have economic value
job analysis tool for determining what is done on a given job and what should be done
recruitment development of a pool of applicants for jobs in an organization
selection choosing from among qualified applicants to hire into an organization
structured interview selection technique that involves asking all applicants the same questions and comparing their responses to a standardized set of answers
assessment center managerial performance test in which candidates participate in a variety of exercises and situations
reliability consistency of test scores over time and across alternative measurements
validity degree to which a selection test predicts or correlates with job performance
outplacement process of helping people who have been dismissed from the company regain employment elsewhere
employment-at-will legal concept that an employee may be terminated for any reason
termination interview a discussion between a manager and an employee about the employees dismisal
adverse impact when a seemingly neutral employment practice has a disproportionately negative effect on a protected group
training teaching lower-level employees how to perform their present jobs
development helpings managers and professional employees learn the broad skills needed for their present and future jobs
needs assessment analysis identifying the jobs, people, and departments for which training is necessary
orientation training training designed to introduce new employees to the company and familiarize them with policies, procedures, culture, and the like.
team training training that provides employees with the skills and perspectives they need to collaborate with others.
diversity training programs that focus on identifying and reducing hidden biases against people with differences and developing the skills needed to manage a diversified workforce.
performance appraisal assessment of an employees job performance
management by objectives process in which objectives set by a subordinate and a supervisor must be reached within a given time period
360-degree appraisal process of using multiple sources of appraisal to gain a comprehensive perspective on ones performance
cafeteria benefit program employee benefit program in which employees choose from a menu of options to create a benefit package tailored to their needs
flexible benefit programs benefit programs in which employees are given credits to spend on benefits that fit their unique needs
comparable worth principle of equal pay for different jobs of equal worth
labor relations system of relations between works and management
arbitration use of neutral third party to resolve a labor disput
union shop organization with a union and a union security clause specifying that workers must join the union after a set period of time
right-to-work legislation that allows employees to work without having to join a union
programmed decisions decisions encountered and made before having objectively correct answers, and solvable by using simple rules, policies, or numerical computations
nonprogrammed decisions new, novel, complex decisions having no proven answers
certainty the state that exists when decision makers have accurate and comprehensive information
uncertainty state that exists when decision makers have insufficient info
risk when the probability of success is less than 100 percent and losses may occur
conflict opposing pressures from different sources, occurring on the level of psychological conflict or of conflict between individuals or groups
ready-made solutions ideas that have been seen or tried before
custom-made solutions new, creative solutions designed specifically for the problem
contingency plan alternative courses of action that can be implemented based on how the future unfolds
maximizing best possible outcome
satisficing choosing an option that is acceptable, although not necessarily the best or perfect
optimizing achieving the best possible balance among several goals
vigilance a process in which a decision maker carefully executes all stages of decision making
illusion of control peoples beliefs that they can influence events
framing effects decision bias influenced by the way in which a problem or decision alternative is phrased or presented
discounting the future bias weighing short-term costs and benefits more heavily than longer-term costs and benefits
groupthink phenomenon that occurs in decision making when group members avoid disagreement as they strive for consensus
goal displacement a condition that occurs when a decision making group loses sight of its original goal and a new, less important goal emerges
cognitive conflict issue-based differences in perspectives or judgements
affective conflict emotional disagreement direct toward other people
devils advocate person who has the job of criticizing ideas to ensure that their downsides are fully explored
dialectic a structured debate comparing two conflicting courses of action
brainstorming a process in which group members generate as many ideas about a problem as they can
bounded rationality less than perfect form of rationality in which decision makers cannot be perfectly rational because decisions are complex and complete info is unavailable
incremental model model of organizational decision making in which major solutions arise through a series of smaller decisions
coalitional model model of organizational decision making in which groups with differing preferences use power and negotiation to influence decisions
garbage can model model of organizational decision making depicting a chaotic process and seemingly random decisions
Created by: 100003472600463
 

 



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