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Rad Biology

Midterm Review

Reproductive age for females? 12-50 years old
Delay in mitosis = 1 rad = ___ = ___ .01Gy = 1 cGy
Hematologic depression at 25 rad = ____ 0.25 Gy
Decrease in neutrophils/platelets is 50 rad = ___ .5 Gy
Decrease in sper count at 10 rad = ___ .1 Gy
Temporary sterility at 250 rad = ___ 2.5 Gy
Erythema at 200 rad = ____ 2 Gy
Testes - permanent sterility at 500 rad = ___ 5 Gy
Testes - Impotence at 3000 rad = ___ 30 Gy
Delayed menstruation at 0.1 Gy = ___ 10 rad
Ovaries - temporary sterility at 205 Gy = ____ 250 rad
Ovaries - permanent sterility at 5.5 Gy = ____ 550 rad
Annual wholde body occupational exposure is 5000 mrem = ____ 50 mSv (5000mrem = 5 rem = .05Sv = 50mSv)
A film badge can measure up to 2000 mrem = 2 rem = ___ = ___ .02 Sv = 20 mSv
Convert 45 rem to mSv: 450 mSv (45 rem = .45 Sv = 450 mSv)
Convert 2 rem to mSv: 20 mSv (2 rem = .02 Sv = 20 mSv)
Convert 34.5 rad to cGy: 34.5 cGy (34.5 rad = .345 Gy = 34.5 cGy)
Convert 8.3 rad to cGy: 8.3 cGy (8.3 rad = .083 Gy = 8.3 cGy)
QF of x-rays = ___ 1
QF of gamma = ___ 1
QF of alpha = ___ 20
WF of x-rays/gamma = ___ 1
WF of alpha rad = ___ 20
The focusing cup is located on the ____ side. cathode
The focusing cup contains the ____. filament
The filament is made of ____. tungsten
Why is the filament made of tungsten? high melting point and high atomic number
During thermionic emission, electrons travel at ____. 1/2 the speed of light
X-rays production exits the tube housing traveling at what speed? speed of light (3 x 10^8 m/s)
What is it when an electron comes close to the nucleus and it slows down and deviates from its course? Brems (braking) radiation
What projectile electron interacts with the inner shell electron? characteristic
What is another name for Characteristic radiation? Cascading
What is it called when the incoming photon is totally transferred to the K-shell electron (totally absorbed)? PE absorption
What type of interaction is responsible for contrast? photoelectric absorption
Patient scatter is due to what type of interction? Compton
What are three other names for Compton scatter? incoherent, modified and inelastic
What are other names for classic scatter? coherent, unmodified and elastic
Pair production and photodesintegration are very important in diagnostic radiography T or F? false (important in nuclear med)
What is the range for a pocket ionization chamber? 0-200 mR (200 mRem, in body)
What is the best field survey dosimeter for alpha? GM counter
Which field survey dosimeter is sensitive most for x-ray/gamma? scintilation counter
Which occupational dosimter is most sensitive? OSL
OSL is sensitive to what measurement? 1mrem (.01 mSv)
Which dosimeter is sensitive to 5 mrem? TLD
Which type of dosimeter releases a light source? OSL, TLD, scintilator
What is the first phase of mitosis? Prophase (interphase is the resting point)
Four phases of mitosis? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase (PMAT)
Free radicals in water can produce ___ ___? hydrogen peroxide
The primary action of x-rays on humans? indirect
According to NCRP #93, the averge annual dose for humands is ___. 360 mrem
According to NCRP #160, the average annual dose for humans is ___ 620 mrem