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Final study guide

Affection a basic human need can be risky for both sender and receiver
two approaches bio-evolutionary(survival) and socio-cultural(learned)
AET affection exchange theory Evolutionary affection is adaptive because it enhances the ability for individuals to survive and procreate evidence of psychological benefits oxytocin levels decreases cortisol (stress inducers) affection is like currenc
need to belong theory NVT failing to form and maintain them is physically and psychologically aversive evolutionary
tend and befriend theory Expressing and receiving feelings of care to/from loved ones benefits people in times of acute stress stress-alleviating benefit is more pronounced for women than men
social exchange theory socio-cultural affection is a resource / reward in relationships
expectancy violations theory People have expectations for how much affection they should receive in various relationships more affection → a positive expectation violation if communicated in an appropriate way and content right place and the right time
cognitive valence people naturally develop comfortable and acceptable patterns for affection deviation from this evaluated based upon 6 criteria
6 CVT criteria cultural norms, existing relational patterns, interpersonal schemata (reward potential), situational appropriateness, physiological state, personality
AET negatives receivers may be distressed if they perceive affection as manipulative
Tend and befriend Speaks only to the benefits of affectionate behavior, in the context of stress
Need to belong affection will produce negative outcomes when it is unaccompanied by genuine affectionate feelings
EVT negatives f affection is seen as a negative expectancy violation → negative evaluations and negative behavioral responses risky to send affection sometimes even when same behavior was judged positively in other circumstances
politeness theory affection can be negative when it threatens either Senders need for positive face or receivers need for negative face
positive face social acceptance
negative face autonomy, personal identity
father-son relationships High levels of affectionate interaction are positively asssociated with men's satisfaction in father-son relationships, prevalent feelings among sons to compete with siblings for father's affection, curvilinear relationships
, highly affectionate individuals report IP relationships as more important report greater comfort with intimacy and closeness are more likely to be in long term relationships report higher levels of relational satisfaction
affection exchange even when controlling for affection received, expressing high levels of affection predict relational health advantages
mental health floyd found that highly affectionate individuals reported greater levels of happiness, self esteem and overall mental health lower levels of stress and depression(exchange), stable personality traits too
stress alleviation regulation (improved stress response) buffering (lower heart rate etc) and recovery (accelerated)
risks of expressing affection non-reciprocity (positive face, can be a negative turning point, early in rel.) misinterpretation (politeness theory and face saving, nonverbals) social censure (PDA, M-M intimacy) and disease transmission
risks of receiving expression expectation of reciprocity (guilt, face threats, unrequited love), relational boundary ambiguity, perceived manipulation(ulterior motives)
deceptive affectionate messages affectionate feelings and affectionate expressions are distinct experiences that often, but need not, covary
types of deceptive displays inhibit, simulate, intensify, de-intensify and mask feelings
consequences of deception guilt, shame, rumination, relational quality and communication issues
study of deception found no difference with heart rate or blood pressure less reported shame when trying to protect others compared to self-protection motives more men were more deceptive and felt less guilty and less shameful
reciprocal altruism feel wrong when not reciprocated, social construct
bald on record straightforward
negative politeness expression used to mitigate potential negative face threats as a friend, I love you
off the record sentiment is implied but not directly stated I think you are cool
closeness closeness regulates ambiguity: closer you are less ambiguous
emotion labor work to display emotions you don't actually feel
love bombing cults using feigned affection to attract recruits
high negative face needs (autonomy leads to higher suspicion of manipulation by affection
Created by: hannad