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psych final exammm

QuestionAnswer
Who first used observation as a way to understand the world? a. Greek philosophers b. Nicolaus Copernicus c. French philosophers d. René Descartes Rene Descartes
When participants' illnesses change because they believe a treatment will have an effect, they are exhibiting a. the placebo effect. b. a self-fulfilling prophecy. c. a conditioned reflex. d. free association. the placebo effect
Which of the following is NOT part of the scientific method? a. asking questions b. conducting experiments c. influencing behavior d. generating a theory influencing behavior
The middle score that is calculated by listing all the scores in order and selecting the center point is called the a. mean. b. median. c. mode. d. variance. median
To conduct a valid study of a large population, you should use a(n) a. nonrepresentative sample. b. representative sample. c. case study. d. naturalistic observation. representative sample
Sir Francis Galton explored how ____ influences a person's behavior. a. Gestalt b. introspection c. psychoanalysis d. heredity heredity
The variable that the experimenter changes to observe its effects is the a. dependent variable. b. independent variable. c. experimental variable. d. control variable. independent variable
Which of the following is NOT a goal of psychology? a. explanation b. prediction c. cognition d. influence cognition
____ psychology theorizes that behavior is influenced by our perceptions, memories, and expectations. a. Cognitive b. Behavioral c. Humanistic d. Sociocultural cognitive
When researchers analyze data, they use inferential statistics to determine if a. the data supports the hypothesis or the results are due to chance. b. the data supports the hypothesis or the results are replicable. the data supports the hypothesis or the results are due to chance
Stanley Milgram's experiment was a a. self-fulfilling prophecy. b. single-blind experiment. c. double-blind experiment. d. naturalistic experiment. single-blind experiment
What method led to the application of the scientific method to the field of psychology? a. psychoanalytic b. applied c. basic d. introspection introspection
A given quantity remains the same even though the size and shape of the container changes. This is the principle of a. solidity. b. conservation. c. representational thought. d. telegraphic images. conservation
Children who are confident and able to make their own decisions likely have parents who are a. permissive/laissez-faire. b. uninvolved. c. democratic/authoritative. d. authoritarian. democratic/authoritative
Which of the following viewed adolescence as a time of conflict and crisis? a. A.C. Peterson b. Albert Bandura c. Margaret Mead d. Erik Erikson erik erikson
Which of the following is the lowest stage of moral development according to Lawrence Kohlberg? a. right or wrong depends on whether one receives punishment b. right or wrong depends on positive or negative consequences to oneself right or wrong depends on whether one receives punishment
What is the order of the five stages of psychological adjustment to one's impending death according to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross? a. bargaining, denial, anger, acceptance, depression c. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance denial anger bargaining depression acceptance
The theory that states that the child shapes his or her development is the a. cognitive-developmental theory. b. psychoanalytical theory. c. social learning theory. d. biological theory. cognitive-developmental theory
Alice is helping her two daughters learn to be good mothers. Erik Erikson would label this a. stagnation. b. generativity. c. bossiness. d. egocentric. generativity
Which of the following tends NOT to describe early maturing boys? a. sports stars b. self-confident c. leaders in groups d. rebellious rebellious
Which of the following is NOT necessarily a warning sign of teenage depression? a. withdrawal from friends b. talking about suicide behavior c. bulimia nervosa d. engaging in extreme risk-taking bulimia nervosa
According to psychologist ____, building an identity is a unique task of adolescence. a. Erik Erikson b. Albert Bandura c. James Marcia d. David Elkind erik erikson
Harry Harlow found that young rhesus monkeys prefer a surrogate mother that can provide a. food. b. contact comfort. c. security. d. soothing sounds. contact comfort
What is the primary difference between happy and unhappy couples? a. Happy couples rarely argue. b. Happy couples focus on solving the problem when they argue. c. Happy couples ignore problems and concentrate on the good things in their relationship. happy couples focus on solving the problem when they argue
Which of the following is not a type of meditation? a. breathing b. mindfulness c. subliminal d. transcendental subliminal
Researchers proved Paul Broca's theory about the connection between the brain and speech using a. EEG machines. b. MRI scans. c. PET scans. d. lesions. PET scans
The smallest increase or decrease in the intensity of a stimulus that a person can detect is a. the absolute threshold. b. the just noticeable difference. c. psychophysics. d. Weber's law. the just noticeable difference
The ____ theory of pain states that pain can be lessened by shifting attention away from the pain impulses. a. fusion b. subliminal c. hypnosis d. gate control gate control
When a person is frightened, epinephrine and norepinephrine are released into the blood-stream from the a. adrenal glands. b. pituitary gland. c. thyroid gland. d. brain. adrenal glands
The fact that when we see a sentence, we perceive words rather than individual letters is an application of the ____ principle. a. similarity b. proximity c. closure d. simplicity proximity
____ is a sleep disorder that can result from the use of alcohol or drugs. a. Sleep apnea b. Narcolepsy c. Insomnia d. Night terrors insomnia
Split-brain operations have been performed to treat a. seizures. b. brain cancer. c. speech disorders. d. lesions. seizures
____ may cause flashbacks that may occur months after taking it. a. Marijuana b. LSD c. Heroin d. Morphine LSD
Which of the following is NOT part of the hindbrain? a. cerebellum b. medulla c. pons d. thalamus thalamus
Your sense of depth perception is created by a. binocular fusion. b. kinesthesis. c. retinal disparity. d. rods and cones. retinal disparity
Which of the following is NOT a theory of why people sleep? a. Sleep allows us to “recharge our batteries.” b. Sleep allows us to integrate our conscious and unconscious minds. c. Sleep allows the brain to recover from exhaustion and stress. sleep allows us to integrate our conscious and unconscious minds
In Freud's theory of personality, the ____ is the part of personality in touch with reality. a. superego b. id c. ego d. unconscious ego
Cognitive approaches to personality emphasize that a. life and death instincts control personality. b. life is a conscious experience. c. personality consists of one's thoughts about oneself. d. personality is a result of behavioral conditioning. personality consists of one's thoughts about oneself
Two teachers are grading the same essay test. If you receive an A on the test from one teacher and a C on the test from the other teacher, the test's ____ reliability is in question. a. test-retest b. interscorer c. scorer d. split-half interscorer
Which of the following is NOT a purpose of personality theories? a. to explain the differences among individuals b. to explore how people conduct their lives c. to determine how life can be improved d. to predict one's success in school and in a caree to predict one's success in school and in a career
The theory of intelligence that considers analytical thinking skills, creative thinking skills, and practical thinking skills is Robert Sternberg's ____ theory. a. multiple intelligences b. emotional intelligence c. triarchic d. two-factor triarchic
The basic belief of ____ is that human behavior develops in response to rewards and punishments received. a. behaviorism b. humanistic psychology c. psychoanalytic theory d. social cognitive theory behaviorism
Humanistic approaches to personality emphasize that a. life and death instincts control personality. b. life is a conscious experience. c. personality consists of one's thoughts about oneself. d. personality is a result of behavioral conditioning. life is a conscious experience
B.F. Skinner approached understanding personality by studying the ____ that affect an individual's behavior. a. contingencies of reinforcement b. defense mechanisms c. outcome expectations d. reaction formations contingencies of reinforcement
The personality theorist who developed the concepts of archetypes and the collective unconscious was a. Alfred Adler. b. Erik Erikson. c. Sigmund Freud. d. Carl Jung. carl jung
A test has ____ if it gives the same results under similar conditions. a. reliability b. validity c. norms d. standardization reliability
The Rorschach inkblot test is a good example of a(n) a. objective personality test. b. objective interest inventory. c. projective personality test. d. projective interest inventory. projective personality test
____ are designed to measure how much a person has already learned in a particular area. a. Achievement tests b. Aptitude tests c. Interest inventories d. Personality tests achievement test
Which of the following is a technique used in client-centered therapy? a. free association b. active listening c. transference d. dream analysis active listening
The stress reaction most likely to result from frustration is a. anger. b. anxiety. c. burnout. d. fear. anger
Each axis in the DSM-IV reflects a. a different type of disorder. b. a different aspect of a patient's case. c. the diagnostic criteria used to determine a specific disorder. d. essential features of a specific disorder. a different aspect of a patient's case
The ____ that you develop in college may force you to reexamine your basic assumptions and adopt new ideas and beliefs. a. comparable worth b. developmental friendships c. eclectic approach d. social support developmental friendships
People who are unable to establish meaningful relationships, assume social responsibilities, or adapt to their social environment suffer from a. a mood disorder. b. schizophrenia. c. a personality disorder. d. a social phobia. personality disorder
Which of the following is NOT a state in the general adaptation syndrome? a. resistance b. exhaustion c. alarm d. transference transference
In which of the following disorders does an individual exhibit two or more personality states, each with its own patterns of thinking and behaving? a. dissociative amnesia b. dissociative fugue c. dissociative identity disorder d. bipolar disorder dissociative identity disorder
Examples of ____ support that groups provide may include food, money, or living arrangements. a. appraisal b. emotional c. informational d. instrumental instrumental
Which of the following is used in the treatment of panic disorders and works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system? a. antianxiety drugs b. antidepressants c. antipsychotic drugs d. lithium carbonate antianxiety drugs
You want to ask your history teacher why she gave you a C– on a recent essay test, but you know that she dislikes students who complain to her about their grades. You have a(n) ____ conflict. a. approach-approach c. approach-avoidance approach-avoidance
A psychoanalyst instructs the patient to say whatever comes into his or her mind in an effort to examine the patient's unconscious. This is known as a. free association. b. insight. c. resistance. d. transference. free association
Which of the following is NOT a possible cause of schizophrenia? a. excess of dopamine in brain b. excess of melatonin in bloodstream c. genetics d. interactions with family excess of melatonin in bloodstream
Violence on television may play a part in teaching ____ to children. a. aggressive behavior b. altruism c. obedience d. social loafing aggressive behavior
If you are considering a career in psychology, a(n) ____ will allow you to have the most options with the widest array of possible employers. a. associate degree b. bachelor's degree bachelor's degree
A ____ is the knowledge or set of assumptions that we develop about people and events. a. schema b. self-serving bias c. self-fulfilling prophecy d. stereotype schema
A man is offended by an advertisement for a product that he normally buys. The advertisement produced ____, because the next time he goes shopping, he buys a competing brand. a. a boomerang effect b. an inoculation effect a boomerang effect
A friend who is cooperative and helpful to you has ____. a. ego-support value. b. social value. c. stimulation value. d. utility value. utility value
A(n) ____ is minimally involved in group decision making. a. authoritarian leader b. democratic leader c. laissez-faire leader d. transformational leader laissez-faire leader
Which of the following is NOT included in Robert Sternberg's triangular theory of love? a. commitment b. friendship c. intimacy d. passion friendship
Attitudes that most strongly predict our behavior are those we acquire through ____. a. cultural influences. b. direct experience. c. direct observation. d. peer influences. direct experience
You have a good voice and have fun singing with your family and friends. When asked to sing solos in your church choir, however, you always refuse because of ____. a. social charisma. b. social facilitation. c. social inhibition. d. social polarizatio social inhibition
In terms of appearance, people usually seek out others whom they consider ____. a. more attractive than themselves. b. less attractive than themselves. c. their equals in attractiveness. d. none of the above. their equals in attractiveness
Which of the following statements about the field of psychology is NOT true? a. It is among the fastest growing fields in the twenty-first century. b. The number of women in the field has been decreasing in recent years. the number of women in the field has been decreasing in recent years
When ____ occurs, people lose their sense of self and follow group behaviors. a. aggression b. deindividuation c. diffusion of responsibility d. individuation deindividuation
Created by: stormiemcdonald