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Earth hazards

Case study facts

Cause of the Kashmir earthquake thrust fault along Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone (continent-continent collision between Indo-Australian and Eurasian Plates)
Date of the Kashmir earthquake 8 October 2005
Magnitude of the Kashmir earthquake 7.6
Epicentre and depth of the Kashmir earthquake close to town of Muzaffarabad, 10km deep
No. of deaths from the Kashmir earthquake over 100,000
No. of people displaced by the Kashmir earthquake 3 million
Cost of the Kashmir earthquake US$5 billion
Cause of the Haiti earthquake Enriquillo Fault (strike slip fault), which marks northern edge of Caribbean Plate
Date of the Haiti earthquake 12 January 2010
Magnitude of the Haiti earthquake 7.0
Epicentre and depth of the Haiti earthquake Leogane (15km south-west of Port-au-Prince), 13km deep
No. of deaths from the Haiti earthquake over 300,000
No. of people displaced by the Haiti earthquake 2.3 million
Cost of the Haiti earthquake US$7.8 billion (120% of Haiti’s GDP)
Cause of the Sendai earthquake subduction of Pacific Plate (oceanic) below Okhotsk Plate (continental) - movement of 10m over a 400km length of fault
Date of the Sendai earthquake 11 March 2011
Magnitude of the Sendai earthquake 9.0
Epicentre and depth of the Sendai earthquake 72km off coast of Sendai, 24km deep
No. of deaths from the Sendai earthquake around 20,000
No. of people displaced by the Sendai earthquake 340,000
Cost of the Sendai earthquake over $300 billion
Cause of Montserrat volcanic activity subduction of North American Plate beneath Caribbean Plate (both oceanic)
Date of Montserrat volcanic activity started in July 1995, peaked in 1997
No. of deaths from Montserrat volcanic activity 19 killed in 1997, when volcanic activity peaked
Decrease in Montserrat’s population from over 10,500 in 1990 to 6,400 in 2000
Cause of Eyjafjallajökull eruption Iceland sits astride Mid Atlantic Ridge – divergent plate boundary between North American and Eurasian Plates
Date of Eyjafjallajökull eruption April 14th – May 2010
Created by: ST1