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lower extrems

lower extremities

QuestionAnswer
characteristics of a foot are? differences in thickness, dorsal and plantar surfaces. 26 bones divided into three parts
dorsal surface top surface
plantar surface bottom surface
phalanges 14
metatarsals 5
tarsus or tarsal bones 7
before equalization what was used on a foot wedge filter
phalanges 14. one phalanx has a base which is proximal. also a body and distal head
another name for great toe hallux which has only two phalanges the distal and proximal phalange
what is the structural and functional classification of the IPJs in the foot synovial hinge/diathrodial
metatarsals 5 beginning at medial aspect or great toe side
classification of metatarsals long bones
metatarsals consist of what a shaft and two articular ends a base and head
distal ends of the metatarsals articulate w/ what heads articulate w/ proximal phalanges
classification of MTP joints diathroidal synovial gliding
proximal ends of of metatarsals articulate w/ what bases articulate w/anterior tarsal bones
classification of TMT joints synovial gliding
tarsals 7 tarsal bones of the ankle
classification of tarsal bones
anterior tarsal bones medial, intermediate, lateral cuneiforms and cuboid
is the the cuboid the most lateral T or F true
posterior tarsal bones navicular, talus, and calcaneus
another name for talus astragulus w/ articulates w/tibia = tailor dome
another name for calcaneus oscalsis which is the largest bone and also the bone of the heel
calcaneus or oscalsis lies below the talus and has three articular surfaces that form a joint w/ the talus. anterior ends form articulation w/ cuboid
calcaneal tuberosity and sustentaculum tail
talus or astragulus is on top and is second largest
the talus articulates w/ what the calcaneus at the subtalar joint
parts of the talus body, trochlea (rounded part or talor dome, tibia), neck, and head (articulates w/ trochlea)
sinus tarsi two tali make a tarsi. sulcus tali (talus) and sustentaculum tali (calcaneus)
sulcus tali indentation in the bone
sustentaculum tali ridge of bone
navicular medial side of foot. lies anterior to talus and posterior to all cuneiforms.
the navicular articulates w/ what the talus, all three cuneiforms and cuboid
cuboid on lateral side
cuboid articulates w/ what calcaneus and the bases of the 4th and 5th metatarsals
cuneiforms occupy medial and central parts of the foot between the navicular and the first,second, and third metatarsals
first (internal) cuneiform articulates w/ what is the largest and articulates w/ the navicular, base of the first metatarsal, and 2nd cuneiform
second (middle) cuneiform articulates w/ what navicular, base of second metatarsal, and 1st and 2nd cuneiform
third (lateral) cuneiform articulates w/ what navicular, base of 3rd metatarsal, 2nd cuneiform, and cuboid
sesamoid bones small detached bones found in foot which form at points of stress near joint. usually found on posterior (plantar) surface of 1st MTP joint. very painful
3 arches longitudinal and transverse arch; ples planus
ples planus flat foot
jones fracture base of 5th metatarsal
congenital club foot talipes equinovarous. infants feet turn inward
ankle joint formed by articulation between lateral malleolus of fibula, inferior surface of tibia, and medial malleolus of tibia
classification of ankle joint synovial saddle joint
leg two long bones the tibia and fibula
is the fibula weight bearing no
tibia second largest bone in body behind femur. located on the medial side
fibula located on the lateral side and slightly posterior
tibia proximal extremity medial and lateral condyles
SUPERIOR surfaces of condyles form what for femur as part of the knee joint articular facets/ tibial plateaus
intercondylar eminence sharp projection between articular facets (tibial plateaus)
double pointed projections intercondylar tubercles or tibial spine
tibial tuberosity anterior surface of tibia, inferior to condyles, serves as point of attachment to muscles and insertion of patellar ligament/ between tibia and patella
as the tibia nears the ankle it becomes what? flattened
tibia distal extremity inferior articular surface is tibial plafond.
medial malleolus large palpable prominence that is located at distal end, forms part of ankle mortise, and reaches approx. 1/2" below ankle joint
fibular notch has lateral surface w/ triangular concave depression for articulation w the medial border of distal fibula
distal tibiofibular joint classification fibrous syndesmosis/ amphiarthrodial
fibula long bone which does not bear weight and lies on lateral side of tibia
head of fibula at proximal end and articulates w/ lateral condyle of tibia (proximal tibiofibular joint)
fibula apex or styloid process conical projection on the lateral and psoterior portion of the head
lateral malleolus distal end of the fibula which also forms part of the ankle mortise which projects lower than the medial malleolus
knee femorotibial (complex) joint formed by femoral condyles and articular facets on superior surface of tibial condyles
classification of the knee synovial, diathrodial, hinge type joint
the joint is protected by what? the patella or sesamoid bone located on anterior surface of femur
what ligaments support the knee? PCL, ACL, TCL, AND FCL
PCL posterior cruciate ligament
ACL anterior cruciate ligament
TCL tibial cruciate ligament
FCL fibular cruciate ligament
how is the knee stabilzed? stabilized and cushioned by menisci which lie on tibial plateaus.
what are the menisci? medial and lateral meniscus
meniscus absorb shock. lateral views of the knee are done to see fat fluid levels
bursa sac found in connective tissue usually in the area of the joints. contains fluid which reduces the friction between bone and tendons
how many bursa are around the knee approx. 12
what is the largest bursa of the knee and the shoulder? shoulder = subacromial knee = prepatellar
patella largest sesamoid bone in the body that is located on the distal, anterior femur which develops in tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle between 3-5 yrs old
shape of the patellar triangle. apex points towrds the knee. pateller ligament attaches the patella to the tibial tuberosity. base is superior
femur long bone. largest in the body has head which articulates with acetabulum of pelvis to form hip joint
fovea capitus indentation (pit) on the head femur
neck slender region just below head
Created by: eckoultd1972