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Six Month Test

Comprehensive Review

QuestionAnswer
what's another term for internal rotation? inversion
what's another term for external rotation? Eversion
How is the human body in anatomical position? stand upright, palms facing forward(supinated),everything you are seeing in the front is anterior(ventral), everything you see in the back is posterior(dorsal)
If you are angling your CR(central ray) to the head, how are you angling it? cephalad
if the CR is angled toward the feet, how is it angled? cauladad
if you on your side what position are you in? lateral
what is position is in between lateral and anterior/posterior? Oblique
if you are semi-pronanted with your right side against the table(side down), what position is the patient in? RAO
Position is what? the way a part or a patient is place on the IR(image Receptor)
what is Projection? path of the CR(Central ray)
if you are in a RAO or LAO position, what kind of projection is that? PA oblique
what is the opposite of the projection or what the Image receptor sees? view
what are some terms for openings into an organ? lumen(window or hollow space), foramen, aperture, orifice, hiatus, os, ostium, porous
what plane is made by cutting the person front to back, and divides the body into equal right and left halves? midsagittal
what plane is form from cutting a person into equal anterior and posterior halves Coronal
Abdomen plane? Transpyloric
what are the ten body systems? Circulatory, Respiratory, Urinary, Muscular, Integumentary, Nervous, Endocrine, Reproductive, Digestive, Skeletal
what are the major body divisions ? Head, neck, trunk, extremities
what is the easiest and hardest to penetrate tissue density in the body? Easiest to Hardest: air, adipose(fat), Muscle, bone
all long bones go under what kind of ossification? Endocondral
all flat bones go under what kind of ossification? Intermembranous
in endocondral ossification the main body of the bone(shaft) is called what? the ends are called what? Diaphysis. Epiphysis
what is another name for the growth plate? epiphyseal plate
what is the name of the diaphysis that sits next to the epiphyseal plate? metaphysis
the primary center for ossification in endocondral is? Diaphysis
what is the secondary center for ossification? Epiphysis
what images do you use for comparisons on someone aged 17yrs and below? AP/PA and Lateral
what are the five classifications of bones? Flat, long, short, irregular, sesamoid
what bone is formed by friction? sesamoid bone
what are the three classifications of joints? immovable: synarthrodial(fibrous), Freely movable: diarthrodial (synovial), Slighty Movable: amparthrodial (cartilaginous)
what is the medical term for joint? articulation
what are the three functions of bone? Levers, support, protection
what does tendon attach to? muscle to bone
what doe ligament attach to? bone to bone
what is the covering of all long bones? periosteum
what is another name for compact bone? Cortical
what is another name for spongy bone? Cancellous
does spongy or compact contain the bony trabeculation? Spongy
what is the central cavity of the bone? medullary
what is the medullary cavity lined with? endosteum
what are some different types of synovial joints? hinge, gliding, ball and socket, saddle, pivot, ellipsoid
what would be the wing of a bone? allah
what would be a knob light process on a bone? Condyle
what is a horny process on a bone?
what is the narrow ridge of bone on our ileum? Crest
what would be the small rounded process on top of a condyle? upon
what is a hammer like process called like in the ankle? malleous
what are some terms for short slender processes? styloid, spinous,
what is a large rounded process like on a femur called? trochanter
what is a large rounded process like on our humerus called? greater, lesser tubercle
what is a pitch or depression? fovea, sulcus, fossa
what are three cavities that make up your ventral cavity? thoracic , Pelvic, abdominal
body habitus natural build and where organ sits.
what is normal body habitus called? what vertebral level does the stomach sit? sthenic. L2
what is the body habitus with a wide build called? hypersthenic, short lungs, high organs
what is the body habitus with a slight smaller build than normal is called? hyposthenic-long lungs, low organs
what is the body habitus with a tall build called? Asthenic
what is a ossicle? little bone
what is a large rounded process like on a humerus called? tubercle or tuberosity
what is the spongy material that makes up the lobes of the lung? parenchyma
what is the pointed end of the lungs called? apex
board flat like end of the lungs is called? base
what are the angles of the lung? costophrenic, cardiophrenic
what is the indentation in the medial part of the lung? hilum
what is the hollow potential space between the two lungs called? mediastinum
what are some structures in the mediastinum? trachea, esophagus, heart, thymus, superior vena cava, aorta
esophagus vs. trachea, which sits more anterior? trachea
how many lobes in the right lung? 3
how many lobes in the left lung? 2
what are the depressions between each lobe called? fissures
what is the diaphragm? large muscle between abdominal and thoracic cavity.
what are the 3 openings into the diaphragm? esophagus, vena cava, and aorta
which dome sits higher? and why? right because of the liver
when you breath in does your diaphragm go up or down? When you breath out? it goes down when you breath in, and up when breath out
what is the lining cavity in the thoracic cavity that covers the lungs but not the roots?(covers the organs) visceral pleural
what is the pleural that covers the wall? Partial pleural
air first enters the body through what? nasal passage
what are the 3 pharyngeal openings top to bottom? nasopharynx oropharynx, laryngopharynx
what is another name for the larynx? voice box
what sits within the vocal folds? vocal cords
what is phonation? sound or voice
what is the silt like opening between the two vocal folds? golitis
what is the leaf like cartilage the covers the golitis? epigolitis
what is the adam's apple called? thyroid cartilage
what is a ring like cartilage? cricoid
once it goes through the laryngopharynx it goes in the air tube which is? trachea
then the trachea divides at the main bronchi at? carina- T4
if a child was to inhail a peanut nut where would it be stuck? right because its shorter and more transverse
the right bronchus goes into how many bronchi? left? 3, 2
lobar bronchi go into what? segmental
the segmental bronchi go into what? tertiary
the tertiary go into what? bronchioles
bronchioles take the air into what? alveoli sac
what happens to air in the alveoli sac gas exchange
what is chewing called? mastication
what are the largest salivary glands that sit below the ear? Parotid
what is the gland that sits below the mandibule? submandibule
what is the gland that sits under the tounge? sublingual
what is the act of swallowing called? deglutition
what is the movement of food throughout the body called peristalsis
what is the lining of the stomach called? rugae
in the digestive system what is the most inner to outer most lining? mucosal, submucosal, muscular, serous
which lining is missing in the esophagus and why? serous, not in abdominal cavity
what orifice does it pass through before entering the stomach cardiac
sitting around the cardiac orifice we have a smooth muscle called a? Sphincter
top part of stomach? fundus
middle part of stomach? body
lower part of stomach? pylorus
greater and lesser what of the stomach? curvature
whats the only thing that the rugae will absorb? alcohol
where does food go once leaving the stomach? duodenum
what is first part of duodenum that connects to pylorus? duodenum bulb
what is in the c-loop of the duodenum? superior, descending, transverse, ascending
what organ sits within the c-loop pancreas
where does food go after duodenum? Jejunum
what is the last part of the small intestine? ileum
what is the major purpose of the small intestine? to absorb nutrients?
what are the finger like projections called in the SI villi
what is the muscle layer of the SI called? circular muscle or plicae circulares
what is the junction between large and small colon called Ileocecal valve
what is the blind pouch? cecum
what comes off the cecum? appendix
does the cecum sit in right or left side? right
what part of the colon comes after cecum? ascending, right hepatic flexure, transverse colon, left splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid, rectal,anus
what is the band of fiberous that run the length of colon? tenia coli
tenia coli help form? haustra
what is purpose of large colon? absorb water
what is the largest solid organ in the body? what sits under the liver? liver, right upper quadrant. gall bladder
what produces bile? liver
what stores bile? gall bladder
what is the purpose of bile? to break down lipids(fat)
what organ is both an endocrine and exocrine? pancreas
what is the main duct of pancreas? pancreatic duct
what part of the pancreas secreates insulin islets of langerhans
when you have the common hepatic duct joining the cystic duct what do they form? common bile duct
common bile duct joins the pancreatic duct which is called? ampulla of vater
ampulla of vater enters the duodenum and has what sphincter around it? sphincter of odie
what part of the duodenum does the ampulla of vater enter? descending
what is the lining that covers the organs of the abdomen? visceral peritoneum
what is the lining that covers the wall of the abdomen? partial peritoneum
when we eat fatty acids what hormone is given off to make the gall bladder secreate bile? CCK
what are the 5 vital signs? pulse, blood pressure, temp, pain, respirations
what devices do you use to measure blood pressure stethoscope, Sphygmomanometer
what is the top number in blood pressure called? Bottom? systolic(contracts)90-120 normal range, diastolic 50-70 normal range
where are some places you can take pulse temporal, carotid, brachial, radial, femoral, popliteal, dorsal pedis
how long should you measure pulse rate? 60 seconds
what's the normal pulse rate for adults? 60-90
where are the spots we can take temp rectal, oral, axillary, tempanic
what is the normal temp? rectal? axillary? 98.6 99.6 97.6
what's the normal resp. rate for adults 15-20
what's the purpose of a pulse ox? to measure oxygen
what do body mechanics protect? spine
when lifting something what do you want to use? legs
what's better push or pull? push
what is diabeties? islets of langerhans not making enough insulin
what is hypoglycemic? low blood sugar
what is hyperglycemic? high blood sugar
what is anaphylactic reaction? allergic to something and there is swelling
what are some patient rights? right to know procedure, right to refuse, right to know billing, right to privacy, informed consent
what is in an informed consent? risk, benefits, alternatives, who is going to be doing the procedure, the doctor is the one who has to make sure it gets filled out.
who can sign an informed consent? the patient
what are different types of informed consent? implied, written, verbal
what is normal ratio compressions to breaths 30:2
what age patient do we check brachial pulse? infant
how many seconds should you do rescues breathing to infant? once 3-5 seconds
what do standard cautions combined? blood and body fluid, universal
what are types of precautions? contact, air
what type of room TB patient place in? negative pressure room
best method to stop hospital infections? washing hands
what is direct contact? touching blood or body fluids with no gloves
what is indirect contact touching the gauze that has blood on it?
what is contact from a bug bite? vector
what is contact with vehicle fomite
what is some PPE? gloves, gown, mask, sharps container, booties
why do we do a PA? reduce magnification
how can you tell if a PA chest is rotated? sc joints
how many ribs should we count in an adult? child? 10, 8
what info needs to be on image to make them legal? patient name, med record #, date, where it was taken at
what's a good landmark for MSP on abdomen? z. process
why don't we want fingers flexed? to keep joint spaces open
why do we want all extremities in the same plane joints open
what are some other lateral projections on hand? extension
what image quality on all bone work? bony trebeculations, soft tissue
why do we cup the fingers down bring the carpals down
why do we do an ulnar deviation to see scaphoid
why semi-pronated oblique wrist? see lateral carpals best
why AP semi-sup wrist? medial carpals best
what would we be looking for when we do 1 inspiration and 1 expiration chest x-ray? movement of diagraghm,
if patient is laying with right anterior side to IR what position are they in? RAO-PA
what does decubitus mean? act of lying
how do you convert 1/2 of a second to decimal? 1 divided by 2
what does Milli mean? 1/1000, move decimal three places to the left
what is the purpose of receptor system to capture image
what is latent image? image before processing
what part of film captures latent image? silver halide crystals
if we have a direct DR system would have selium or silicon plate? selium, then each pixels have TFT(thin film transistor) that directly converts xray to image
if we have indirect capture system has what plate? silicon, and scintillator
what types of scintillators? G. oxysulifide, Cesium Iodide
x-ray converted to what by scintillator? light
then a CCD or TFT would convert light into what kind of signal? electronic
for the CR plate, what part of that plate captures the latent image? barium fluorhalide imperfect with europium
what is purpose of base with film? mechanical support
in film what's the purpose of adhesive layer? holds emulsion to base
in film what is emulsion made up off? gelatin
in film what is the purpose of gelatin? even disperses silver halide crystals
in film if the silver halide crystals are not evenly dispersed what type of mottle? film grainess
what crystal makes up the recording medium that is thinly dispersed throughout the emulsion silver halide
what are two types of halide? bromide, iodide
in film what makes halide crystal imperfect? sensitivity specs
when run through processor silver crystals reduce to what? black metallic silver
what is purpose of overcoat? protection
what do we call film coming from screen matching type of film that is receptive? spectral matching
what houses film screen? cassette
tube side had to be made of what? radiolucent material
what is purpose of lead on back? to reduce backscatter
what does cassette have that IR doesn't? blocker
what are two characterists for film screen? good film screen contact and light tight
how can we check for poor film screen contact? wire mesh test
what does poor contact look like blurring
what are some causes of poor contact? broken latches, bent frame, foreign object
what does transitory cause? error
what is the type of base material used for film and screen? polyester-safety film
what does reflective layer do? redirects light
light admitted evenly in all directions is called what? isotropic propergation
what does phosphor layer do? converts x-ray to light
calcium tungstate gives of what light? blue
what kind of film? blue sensentative
what kind of safe light filter? amber
what are three rare earth elements? yetrium, gadaleinum, lanthemun
what color does rare earth give off? green
what does protective coat allow? cleaning
any scratches or dirt on film show up as what color? white
in CR system what is purpose of backing? contains the barcode
what are the layers of CR system plate? backing, base, anti-halo reflective layer, phosphor layer, protective coat
what does anti-halo reflective layer do? allows good light to come in but stops backflow from fogging image
what is in the phosphor layer? barium fluoro halide doped with europium
as europium are hit by x-ray causes them to give off what? electron which is held in a bound state at the f center
how do we get electrons to release? by using a high energy laser
what is purpose of low energy laser? set histogram
what does progressive scanning prevent? banding
what is the simplest type of beam image device? lead apature diagphm
what is the extension that is straight? Flared? cylinder, cone
in a collimater what is the purpose of inmovable enterance shutters clean up stem radiation
what is ghosting cause by? stem radiation
what angle should the mirror be at? 45 degrees
how can you check that the mirror is off? 8 penny test
what does the mirror have to between focal spot and light source
what hardens the beam? filter
what makes up built in filtration? what can we add? tube envelope and oil, Millimeters of aluminum
below 50 kvp how much aluminum need? 50-70? 70-100? recommened? above? .5, 1.5, 2.5, 2.5, 3
what is the purpose of filtration? to harden the beam
how does filtration harden the beam? low energy, long wave length, improve skin dose
what is the purpose of beam restriction? less tissue exposure, and reduce scatter
when is correct to use the word density? film
when we use electronic imaging what word would we use? brightness
what is density? blackening on the IR
what is brightness? measurement of lumenessents of each pixel
what two primary exposure factors control density MA, SID
what are some things that influence density or brightness? kvp, OID(air gap technique), pathology, patient thickness, collimation/beam restriction, grid
does kvp have a strong influence on density, true or false? true
what do you have to do to the MA to double the density? double it
what do we have to do to half our density half our MA
what happens to our density when we lower MA only by 10? it doubles our density
what is kvp used to control? contrast
scatter produces what % density in our chest? abdomen? 50,90
film: if you take a hand image with a 200 speed system and 2 MAS, and a hand with a 800 speed system with 2 MAS which would be darker? 800 because you don't need as much MAS
what happens to density over develop? too dark
what happens to density when under develop? too light
do you change window level or window width to change brightness(density)? level, direct relationship
what's a two word term for contrast? density differences
what controls contrast in the electronic system? histogram
what fixes your image? auto rescaling
what technical factor affects contrast? kvp(kilovolts peak)
what does kvp affect quanity or quality of the beam? quality
what is quality? penetration ability
what do manufactures use to control film contrast? crystal size
the disadvantage of high contrast film? we lose film latitude
what is subject contrast the patient
anything that throws off density what does it do to contrast? lowers it
image with many shades of grey is that high or low contrast? low contrast, long scale
image with few shades of grey and black and white color? high contrast, short scale
what does scatter do to contrast reduce
what noise do to contrast reduce
high kvp greater than 60, whats another indicator for using a grid? 10-12 cm part size, greater
for ALARA why is it better to use low MAS high KVP low patient dose, higher penetration
what happens when MAS too low graininess
what is the definition of record detail for film screen or spatial resolution for electronic image ability to see small structures
what are the factors that affect spatial resolution/ recorded detail SID, OID, Time(blur), focal spot size, IR
for IR do you want a high or low speed system to get better spatial resolution-film screen? Low, less spread of light
computer matrix, do we want large or small? Large, made up small pixels
if we have small pixels what happens to the pixel pitch? small
if we have small pixels with small pixel pitch, what pixel packing density do we have? high
what is visibility of detail? what affects it? how well you see detail, anything that affects contrast or density
what's the difference between beam quality and beam quanity? penetration ability, amount of radiation
how do we reduce maginification in chest? PA, LAT and as far as possible
what two factors that control spatial resolution that also maginification? SID, OID
what is shape distortion? deviation from true shape, foreshortening, enlongation
what is the definition of the inverse square law? intensity of radiation is inversly related to the distance square
if we go from a 14x17 to a 10x12 what is happening to the density to light, so what must you do? increase MAS 40%-60%
what's a purpose of radiographic grid? to produce scatter
where is grid place? between patient and IR
what technical factor affects amount of scatter produced? KVP
what patient factors affects amount of scatter produce? size, pathology, type of tissue
what are two rules to use a grid? greater than 10-12 centimeters, greater than 60 KVP
what do we have to increase if we are getting rid of scatter? MAS,KVP
for ALARA purposes which is better to increase? KVP
what would be disadvantage of increasing KVP lose contrast, more scatter
when properly use a grid what does that do to our contrast? improves it
what two manufacturing factors determined how well a grid works? amount of lead (#lines per inch), grid ratio
what determines grid ratio? height of grid lines divided by the width of the interspace
if we wanted a higher grid ratio, would we have thicker or thinner interspace? thinner, more Efficient, decrease positioning latitude
what is the definition number of lead lines per unit measure? frequency
if we have a high frequency 110 per inch compared to 80 per inch which would have thicker lead lines? 80
the most efficient grid would be A) High freq, high ratio B)low freq, low ratio D) low freq, High Ratio D- low freq(more lead), high ratio (thinner interspace)
how to get rid of grid moire? grids with thinner lead lines- high freq
what is grid cutoff? loss of density in certain areas do to divergence of the beam
get rid of banding? progressive scan for laser
what is least common cause of cutoff of perphireal? grid upside down
what is most common cutoff where it is light image and has grid lines? tilted, off level
what would cause more cutoff on side than the other? off center
where would you see perphireal cutoff? off focus
if we have no control on distance would we want to use a focused grid or linear parallel grid? linear parallel,
where would we see cutoff on a linear parallel grid? perphrirey
how do you stop cutoff? what do you have to be careful with? use focus grid, right SID
what is the purpose of a potter-bucky moving grid? blur our lead lines
when we have a moving grid, should it move before we have an exposure? before
when should stop? after
with CR system is it direct or Indirect capture? indirect
layers of cassette starting with most posterior backing-contains barcode,Base, anti-halo reflective, phosopher layer(barium fluro halide, imperfect with europium), top (protection)
when the radiation strikes the barium fluro halide crystals, what does it cause europium to do? release the electrons that held In a bound state at the f-center, creates latent image
what do we have to do to turn latent image into manifest image? IRD, low laser scan so you have right histogram, then high intensity to make electrons to fall back and give off light collected by photomultiplier tube and sent to CCD then sent to lookup table
what is the purpose to hit cassette with bright light? erase plate
barium fluro halide, pick an item with high detective efficiency, is absorb or conversion efficiency? absorb
if we have high DQE what does that do to our patient dose? less patient dose
which is direct capture in DR? Celinum
on each pixel of each we have a switch? TFT
if we have amporhius silicon what makes it indirect capture? scintillator
what are two types of scintillator? gadillium oxysulfide, cesium iodide
where would we see G.oxysulfide rare earth screens
window level controls? brightness-direct
what controls contrast? range/width- indirect
what can tech use to change image? sun and moon
the range of exposures the IR will respond to? dynamic range
range of exposures that will produce image with lowest possible dose? exposure latitude
what is a histogram plot? is different ranges of brightness
exposure index? over or under exposed
what is the name of exposure index? s-number 100-200, below 100 over, over 200 under
what is EXI # at Halifax? 125-500, direct
what would give us noise suppression? smoothing, but we lose contrast
what do we use if we have several images you want to put together? stitching
what algorithm for a foot? equalization
what is the min. scanning freq you want to set nyquest
what causes ghosting on a CR plate? heavy patient
CR vs. DR which is variable? CR
what are three basic rules radiation safety? time, distance, shielding
what do we mean by time? time around source
what law is for distance? inverse square law
what material is used for shield? lead
where does primary beam come from? tube
primary protection from the floor how high does it run up? 7ft, 1/16th of lead in concrete
top of primary to ceiling is secondary protection? how thick? scatter, 1/32inch
aprons, everything else thickness? .5, .25
different types of shields? shaped, flat, shadow
which is good for sterile procedures? shadow
what is our dose limit whole body as workers over 18 5 rems per year
hands and feet, lens 50rems, 15
what is dose limit whole body, as patient or student? declared pregnant for fetus? .1, .5, .05 per month
WHAT DOES PACS STAND FOR? PICTURE ARCHIVING COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Created by: johnsoni1986