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XR 105 Midterm

XR 105 Midterm

QuestionAnswer
name the regions of the spine cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx
what is the name of the most distal portion of the spine? the coccyx
which 2 portions of the vertebrae come together to form the posterior portion of the vertebrae, the "vertebral arch" the pedicle and the lamina
the vertebral arch is formed by the pedicle and the lamina
the opening for each vertebrae that serves as the passage for the spinal canal is called the vertebral foramen
the articular surfaces of the articular processes of the vertebrae are called the facets
the block like, anterior portion of a typical vertebrae is called the body
what structures serve as cushions in the anterior portion of the vertebral column? the intervertebral discs
what is the name of the tough, outer layer of the intervertebral disc? the annulus fibrosus
what is the name of the soft, inner layer of the intevertebral discs? the nucleus pulposus
how many vertebrae in the cervical spine? 7
how many vertebrae in the thoracic spine? 12
the region of the spine that has 7 vertebrae and a lordotic curve is the cervical spine
how many vertebrae in the lumbar spine? 5
what are 2 unique anatomical characteristics of the cervical vertebrae? bifid spinous process, transverse foramen on each side of the body
which of the cervical vertebrae is also known as the atlas? C1
which of the cervical vertebrae is also known as the axis? C2
the tooth-like projection from the superior surface of the body of the axis is called the dens or the odontoid
what is the normal curve of the thoracic spine? kyphotic
what is the normal curve of the lumbar spine? lordotic
what is the normal curve of the sacrum? kyphotic
which vertebrae have special facets for articulation with the ribs? thoracic vertebrae
on which projection of the spine is the "scottie dog" configuration demonstrated? the oblique projection of the L spine
which portion of the scottie dog represents the pars interarticularis the neck
which portion of the scottie dog represents the superior articular process? the ear
which portion of the scottie dog represents the inferior articular process the front leg
when taking an AP axial projection of the C spine, how is the CR angled? 15 degrees cephalic
then the MSP in parallel to the film, what position is the patient in? lateral
when the MSP is perpendicular to the film, what position is the patient in? AP / PA
when the coronal plane is parallel to the film, what position is the patient in? AP / PA
when the coronal plane is perpendicular to the film, what position is the patient in? lateral
which surface of the body is touching the film in an LPO position? left posterior surface
which surface of the body is touching the film in an RPO position? right posterior surface
which surface of the body is touching the film in an RAO position? right anterior surface
which surface of the body is touching the film in an LAO position? left anterior surface
when the patient is upright and the MSP is parallel to the film, and the CR is directed perpendicular to C4, the resulting radiograph is a(an) lateral projection of the C spine
when viewing and AP projection of the upper C spine through the open mouth technique, you notice that the base of the skull is superimposed over the dens. what caused this positioning error? the patients neck was extended too much
when viewing and AP projection of the upper C spine through the open mouth technique, you notice that the base of the teeth are superimposed over the dens. what caused this positioning error? the lower border of the top teeth were not lined up with the mastoid tip , or, the patients neck was not extended enough
what is the rational for using a 72-inch SID for the lateral projection of the C spine? to reduce magnification caused by the increased OID
what anatomical structure of the C spine is best demonstrated by the lateral projection? the zygapophyseal joints
a breathing technique is used to advantage when taking which projection of the spine? lateral T spine
what is the purpose of lateral projections of the C spine in the flexion and extension positions? to evaulate for intersegmental injury
what projection of the C spine should precede flexion and extension positions? lateral projection of the C spine
what should you do if a patient comes into the office after a traumatic injury with a neck collar the was put on by an ambulance? take a lateral C spine xray and then show it to the doctor. DO NOT remove the collar until the physician has given you permission to do so, and furthermore, you should request that THE PHYSICIAN comes to remove the collar.
why should a cross-table (x-table) lateral projection of the C spine be performed and evaluated by a physician before flexion and extension views are attempted? to evaluate traumatic injury to the C spine
what is the proper CR angle and direction for the PA oblique projections of the C spine? 15 degrees caudad
what is the proper CR angle and direction for the AP oblique projections of the C spine? 15 degrees cephalic
what is the proper patient position for an AP oblique projection of the C spine? 45 degree posterior oblique position
what anatomical structures are best demonstrated by the AP oblique projections of the C spine? the intervertebral foramina FARTHEST from the film
what anatomical structures are best demonstrated by the PA oblique projection of the C spine? the intervertebral foramina CLOSEST to the film
to demonstrate the intervertebral foramina on the patients right side, how shall we position the patient? RAO or LPO
which vertebrae should be included in the lateral projection of the cervicothoracic region? C6 - T3
what is another name for the cervicothoracic projections? the swimmer's view
where should the CR enter the patient for the lateral swimmer's view? perpendicular to C7-T1 interspace
if the patient is positioned so the coronal plane is perpendicular to the film, the MSP is parallel to the film, the arm closest to the film is above the patient's head, and the CR is at C7-T1, what view are we taking? a swimmer's view
what is the purpose of the positioning method that is used for the simmer's view? to view the C7-T1 junction between the shoulders
for which spine projection is it most important to consider the anode heel effect? the AP T spine
where does the CR enter the patient for the AP projection of the T spine? perpendicular to T7
which projection of the T spine demonstrates open intervertebral foramina? the lateral projection
what device may be used to improve visualization of the spinous processes of the T spine in the lateral projection? a piece of lead placed behind the patient to absorb scatter
which structures are seen on the lateral projection of the T spine? T3-T12
what can be done to help position the entire T spine parallel to the film when the patient is in the lateral recumbent position (laying down) place a radiolucent sponge under the waist and or hips of the patient
when usig a 14x17 film, where does the CR enter the patient for the AP projection of the L spine? at the level of the iliac crest in the midline of the patient
when using a 11x14 film, where does the CR enter the patient for the AP projection of the L spine 1 1/2" above the crest, at the midline of the patient
what positioning maneuver is used to improve patient comfort and reduce the lordotic curve of the the L spine when positing for a recumbent AP L spine? flex the knees
which projection of the L spine demonstrates open intervertebral foramina? the lateral projection
what specific spine anatomy is demonstrated on a lateral projection of the L spine? the intervertebral foramina
which supplemental projection of the L spine demonstrates the zygapophyseal joints CLOSEST to the film? AP oblique
which body position would demonstrate the left zygapophyseal joints of the L spine? 45 degrees LPO
what specific anatomy is best demonstrated on the AP oblique projection of the L spine if the patient is positioned in a 45 degree RPO position? the RIGHT zygapophyseal joints
a supine position with the CR directed 15 degrees cephalic through the midpelvis is used to demonstrate what? an AP axial projection of the sacrum
what is the angle and direction of the CR for the AP axial projection of the sacrum? 15 degrees cephalic
which position demonstrates the left SI joint? LPO or RPO? RPO
which position demonstrates the right SI joint? LPO or RAO? LPO
which position demonstrates the right SI joint? RAO or LAO? RAO
which position demonstrates the left SI joint? RAO or LAO? LAO
when radiographing the SI joints in the AP oblique position, we are always looking at the side up or the side down? the side up
when radiographing the SI joints in the PA oblique position, we are always looking at the side up or the side down? the side down
how many degrees is the patient obliqued to visualize the SI joints? 25-30 degrees
where does the CR enter the patient in the AP oblique position of the SI joint? 1" medial to the elevated ASIS
where does the CR enter the patient in the PA oblique position of the SI joint? 1" medial to the ASIS of the side down
what is the angle and direction of the CR for the AP axial projection of the coccyx? 10 degrees caudal
when the posterior neural arch of a single vertebrae fails to close during early development and there is no other abnormality, the condition is known as spina bifida occulta
which region of the spine is the most common site of pathologic compression fracture of vertebral bodies caused by osteoporosis T spine
what is spondylosis? fixation or fusion of a vertebrae
what is spondylolisthesis? anterior displacement of one vertebrae over another
what condition is diagnosed using CT, MRI, or a myelogram but is not normally seen on a routine xray? herniated nucleus pulposus
an abnormal curvature of the spine is called? scoliosis
what is spondylitis? applies to TB of the spine, also called Pott disease
what is spondylolysis? the breakdown of the structure of the bone. occurs with osteoporosis, with some metastatic lesions, and with other condition that cause atrophy and bony destruction
what is spondyloschisis? a congenital fissure (split or cleft) in the neural arch. An example is spina bifida occulta
what is degenerative disc disease (DDD)? sclerotic (hardened) irregular bone margins with hypertrophic lipping and spurring. usually associated with osteoarthritis
what is sciatica? pain along the path of the sciatic nerve in the bottock, posterior thigh, and leg. caused by nerve irritation in the lumbar region
what is stenosis? narrowing of an opening, in this example referring to the intervertebral foramina