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Psychology Studies

The studies of Psychology unit one

Jacobs Digit Span technique Read a list of words/numbers starting at 4 and increasing had to recall immediately until they could no longer recall found participants could recall 9 numbers but only 7 letters concluded that STM had a capacity of between 5-9 i
Miller Supported Jacbobs findings Magic number 7 +/- 2 items Applied to both words and numbers Capacity could be increased by chunkinh
Conrad showed 6 letters visually Make errors by substituting letters that sound the same, rather than those that looked the same Acoustic confusion Shows that STM is encoded acoustically
Baddeley Words that sound acoustically similar made more errors than words that were acoustically dissimilar (after supports that STM encodes acoustically recalled 20 minutes later Higher recall for semantically different Difficult to seperate because too sim
Peterson & Peterson Lab experiment 24 studenrs to remember meaningless trigrams 3 digit number count back in 3's (to Prevent maintenance rehearsal counting stopped after 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 seconds 80% 3 second interval 30% after 9 second interval 10% after 18 second i
Bahrick 392 graduates aged 17-74 130 pictures from year book Match faces to name, name to pictures, naming pictures free recall of names 50% after 3 months 20% after 40+ years names & pictures 75% older group with appropriate cues, info can be recalled 40+
Roberts and Lamb 68/191 abuse interviews went uncorrected when misinterpreted - children would accept incorrect information due to fear of adult authority figure
Poole and Lindsay Children aged 3-8 Science demonstration then story Older children could extract post event info from science demonstration but younger children couldn't
Cohen and Faulkner Two groups - one mean of 35, other 70 Film of kidnapping Narrative with misleading information Older participants gave more inaccurate responses
Schaffer & Emerson Specific attachments started at about 8 months and infants became attached to others. By 18 months, only 13% were attached to one person
Loftus Argument - participants waiting in corridor man with grease pen man with bloody knife 50 photographs of the man - participants asked to identify Pen group more accurate anxiety decreased accuracy - anxiety negatively impacts memory
Loftus and Burns One group watched violent film - boy shot in the face Other group watched a non-violent film Violent film group less accurate at recall Aniexty negatively impacts memory
Christianson and Huninette 58 real witnesses witnesses to back robbery Those who were directly threatened and more anxious were more accurate Continued to be the case 15 months later
Deffenbacher meta-analysis 18 studies Memory impaired if too anxious Supports Loftus
Loftus and Palmer Lab experiment IV = word in question DV = speed estimation 45 students 10mpn between 'smashed' and 'contacted' Misleading information can alter EWT
Loftus 1975 Replicated Loftus and Palmer Asked to come back a week later Exposed to post event information 'did you see any broken glass' 'Smashed' group more likely to say yes than 'hit group' Post-event information can alter EWT
Ainsworth and Bell Strange situation 26 mothers and children babies between 9-18 months 8 stages, baby with mother, with stranger, mother and stranger etc observe behaviours to define types of attachment found 3 types of attachment
Types of Attachment Type A: Insecure avoidant 22% - indifferent, no attempt to interact Type B 66%: securely attached - explore, wary of stranger Enthusiastic on reunion Type C: Insecure resistant 12% - Highly distressed when away from care giver, seeks and rejects
Behaviours observed in Strange Situation Proximity seeking/using parent as a secure base and willingness to explore Stranger anxiety Separation Anxiety Reunion behaviour
Grossman Strange situation on German children. 49% insecure avoidant and 33% secure Concluded there are cross-cultural variations in attachment
Kyoung Strange Situation with 87 korean families and 133 American families. Similar number of attached children in both. Big differences in parenting styles, but similar numbers of attachments Concluded no cross-cultural variations
Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg Meta-anaylsis of 32 studies including over 2000 strange situations in 8 different countries. Found differences between cultures are small, japanese studies - one no insecure avoidant other matched Ainsworth's original findings
5 characteristics of a good quality day care Stimulating environment Key workers more staff per child low staff turnover smalled mixed age groups
Clarke-Stewart Day care improves peer relations and social skills such as negotiating
Vliestra Teacher ratings of new Zealand children between 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 half a day = Better peer relations
DiLalla Quantitively measured time in day care and levels of pro-social behaviour Negative correlation More time in day care = lower quality of peer relations
Learning Theory All infants are born as 'blank slates' All behaviour is learned rathe than being innate Nuture not nature Behaviour is learned through classical conditioning (learning by association)
Created by: HJO_Religion
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