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Chapter 3 Rad Prot

Rad Quantities and Units

QuestionAnswer
William Roentgen discovered x-rays in ____. 1895
The first radiograph was taken Nov ____ on Ana Ludwig. 1895
The first American to die from radiation induced cancer was Clarence Dally in ____. 1904
Who invented the fluroscope? Thomas Edison
______ is reddening of the skin. Radiodermatitis
In ____, the Roentgen became the unit of measurement for x-ray and gamma ray. 1937
In 1964 the ICRU changed their name to ____. NCRP
____ is the traditional unit for Dose equivalent and a __ is the SI unit for Dose equivalent. rem; Sievert(Sv)
______ is reddening of the skin. Radiodermatitis
In ____, the Roentgen became the unit of measurement for x-ray and gamma ray. 1937
The "effective dose" (EfD) was created in ____. 1991
Effective dose is expressed in ___ or ___ and takes into account the tissues exposed. Sv; rem
_____ is the traditional unit absorbed dose; ___ is the SI unit for absorbed dose. rad; Gray(Gy)
What are the units for radioactivity (nuclear med)? Curie (traditional); Becquerel(Bq; SI unit)
Exposure in air is measured in ____ (traditional unit) or ____ (SI unit) Roentgen (R); Coulombs/kilogram (C/kg)
1 R = ? 1R=2.58 x 10 (-4) C/kg
Exposure in air measures the ionization of air produced by x-radiation below ____. 3 million electron volts (3MeV)
Absorbed dose is used to measure the ____ a patient recieves. dose
Kerma stands for: kinetic energy released per unit mass of matter
An ___ is the amount of work done by a force for a distance of 1 cm. erg
1 rad = an energy transfer of ___ ergs/gram of absorbing material 100
____ is used as a measurement of occupational exposure. Equivalent dose(EqD)
___ is the quality factor (Q) of electromagnetic energy(x-rays/gamma). 1
____ is the quality factor (Q) of alpha rays. 20
___ is the rate at which energy is deposited in the form of a charged particle or ion pairs as it travels through matter. LET (linear energy transfer)
X-ray and gamma radiation are considered ___ LET. (<3keV), do not deposit energy quickly and are very penetrating. low
Alpha and Beta have a ___ LET (100keV), do not penetrate matter well and deposit energy quickly. high
Beta particles are ___x more penetrating than alpha particles. 100
____ mm of Al can stop beta particles. 3
___ radiation is the most penetrating. Gamma
Weighting factor of x-ray and gamma rays is ___. 1
WF of neutrons (<10keV) is ___. 5
A radiation ____ ___ takes into account the different biological effects (LET) caused by different types of radiation. (NCRP Report #116) weighting factor
____ is the product of the average absorbed dose in a tissue/organ in the human body and its associated weighting factor. Equivalent Dose(EqD; EqD=D x Wr
1 rad = ____mrad 1000
3 R = ___mR 3000
0.25 Gy = ___mGy 250
0.5Sv = ___mSv 500
500 rad to GI system = ___ 5 Gy
250 rad to gonads = ___ 2.5 Gy
1000 rad to Eye = ___ 10 Gy
5 rem/yr to RT = ____ .05 Sv
300 mrad = ___ 3 mGy
4.0 Gy = ____ 400 rad
4.0 mGy = ___ 400 mrad
0.5 Gy = ___ 50 rad
0.07 Sv = ___ 7 rem
33 mSv = ___ 3300 mrem
1 rad = ____ cGy 1
1 rem = ___ 10 mSv
500 rem = ___ 5000 mSv
1/2 pack a day of cigarettes will introduce the body to ___ mrem. 18
What alpha particle emitter is found in cigarette smoke? Polonium 210
What is the annual exposure from smoke detectors? 1 mrem/year (or .01 Sv)
What alpha emitter is released from smoke detectors? Americium 241 (half life of 432 yrs)
1/2 pack a day of cigarettes will introduce the body to ___ mrem. 18
What alpha particl emitter is found in cigarette smoke? Polonium 210
What is the annual exposure from smoke detectors? 1 mrem/year (or .01 Sv)
What alpha emitter is released from smoke detectors? Americium 241 (half life of 432 yrs)
During a nuclear blast, ___% is thermal energy and __% is radiation. 85; 15
____ is used as a measurement of the rate of nuclear disintegration (decay) of a material. Radioactivity
A half-life is the times it takes a radioactive material to decay to ___% of its original activity. 50
1 Curie(Ci) = ____ 3.7 x 10(10) Becquerels
Potassium Iodide (KI) will prevent 99% of the damage to the ____ if taken 1 day before radioactive iodine is swallowed. thyroid
Occupational radiation exposure is measured in ____. rem (5 rem/yr to RT)