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Psych: Ch. 1

empirical relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.
psychology the discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment
psychobabble pseudosicence and quackery covered by a veneer pf psychological and scientific-sounding language.
critical thinking The ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgements on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote.
Occam's razor Once serval explanations of a phenomenon have been generated, a critical thinker chooses the one that accounts for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions.
phrenology The now-discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific charater and personality traits, which can be "read" from bumps on the skull.
Wilhelm Wundt Began the study of psychology and the approach of structuralism.
structuralism An early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements.
functionalism An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness.
William James Helped begin and lead the approach of functionalism.
Charles Darwin Brought the idea to functionalism of how certain traits help enhance survival.
Sigmund Freud Began psychoanalysis. Mental, not physical, causes. Neurologist.
Psychoanalysis A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.
biological perspective A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.
evolutionary psychology A field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior.
learning perspective A psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a persn's or animal's actions; it includes behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories.
behaviorists focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors. 19
social-cognitive learning theorists combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions. 19
cognitive perspective A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior.
sociocultural perspective A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior.
social psychologists focus on social rules and roles, how groups affect attitudes and behavior, why people obey authority, and how each of us is affected by other people.
cultural psychologists examine how culture rules and values affect people's development, behavior, and feelings.
psychodynamic perspective A psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy.
humanist psychology A psychological approach that emphasizes free will, personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential.
positive psychology focuses on the qualities that enable people to be happy, optimistic, and resilient in times of stress.
feminist psychology A psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social issues on gender relations and on behavior of the two sexes.
psychological practice providing health or mental health services
basic psychology The study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for it's own sake rather than for its practical application.
applied psychology The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the application of psychological findings.
experimental psychologist conduct laboratory studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition.
educational psychologist study psychological principles that explain learning and sear for ways to improve educational systems.
developmental psychologist study how people change and grow over time physically, mentally, and socially.
industrial/organizational psychologist study behavior in the work place.
psychometric psychologist design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and personality.
counseling psychologist help people with every day problems. eg. test anxiety, family conflicts, or low job motivation.
school psychologist work with parents, teachers, and students to enhance students' performance and resolve emotional difficulties.
clinical psychologist diagnose, treat, and study mental or emotional problems. Range from severely disturbed to just unhappy patients.
psychotherapist Anyone who does any type of psychotherapy.
psychoanalist person who specializes in psychoanalysis.
psychiatrist a medical doctor who has done three-yea residency in psychiatry to learn how to diagnose and treat mental disorders.
Created by: brbchanel
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