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Philosophy 4 Walker

Philosophy for Class

Which rationalist philosopher used radical doubt to discover an idea that could not be refuted? Descartes
Which are true statements about Descartes' science? He saw the world as operating on "impacts" between objects. His theory led to the idea that the universe operates mechanistically, much like a clock.
The belief that one's system of beliefs ultimately rests upon a set of basic beliefs is called foundationalism. True or False? True
What are beliefs that Descartes held? Essentially, a human is "a thing that thinks." Humans are a dualism composed of mind (i.e. soul) and body, and the two are separate and distinct. Although all persons have a body, the body is not essential to one's humanity.
Which are ways that Descartes' thinking led to Modernity? It introduced the idea that the universe is impersonal and operates mechanistically according to the laws of nature. It turned "first philosophy" from metaphysics (and, by association, ontology) to epistemology.
What are some other ways that Descartes' thinking led to Modernity? It aroused interest in the inner workings of the human mind (i.e. subjectivism). It introduced the mind-body problem.
Which 17th Century philosopher is commonly thought of as a pantheist? Spinoza
Which philosopher was not a rationalist? Locke
Which 17th Century Philosopher thought that the universe consists of indivisible "monads?" Liebniz
Definition of a priori knowledge? Ideas gained prior to sense experience
Definition of a posteriori knowledge? Ideas gained subsequent to sense experience
What are some of the things Locke believed? That humans do not possess innate ideas. That our minds are blank slates at birth. That sensory experiences appear in our minds as ideas rather than as images.
What statement best describes Locke's theory of moral reasoning? The law of God infused in the nature of the world teaches us which actions are right or wrong.
Locke claimed that belief in God is an a priori belief that is innate in the human heart True or False? False Locke did not believe in innate ideas of any sort, not even in God.
Berkeley's maxim, Esse ist percipi, means " To be is to be perceived." True or False? True
Idealism is the philosophical theory that ideas are the ultimate reality True or False? True
What are some statements on Berkeley's philosophy? Berkeley denies that things exist apart from their being perceived. Berkeley disputed the existence of matter.
What are some other statements on Berkeley's philosophy? Berkeley thought that things have enduring existence because they are continually perceived in the mind of God. Berkeley thought that truth is that which corresponds to reality as it is perceived by God.
Hume thought that our minds associate objects in one of three ways what are those ways? On account of resemblance. On account of contiguity in time and space. On account of cause and effect.
Hume said that even though event B always follows immediately after event A, we still have not demonstrated a cause and effect relationship cause we have no direct sensory observations of the "cause" True or False? True
Hume destroyed the epistemic confidence of rationalitst and empiricists, leaving Western culture mired in skepticism True or False? True
Kant developed his philosophy to counter Hume's skepticism True or False? True
Kant's definitions of a priori and a posteriori knowledge specify what? A temporal relation between knowledge and sensory experience.
"A triangle is a figure that has three sides." According to Kant, this is an example of what? An analytic statement
7+5-12, According to Kant, this is an example of what? A synthetic a priori statement
Kant thought that knowledge arises when our minds apply categories of time, space, number etc. to our sense experiences True or False? True
According to Kant, what we cannot sense, we? cannot know.
According to Kant, we have no knowledge of things as they actually are, but? Only of things as they appear to us
Kant coined the term "ding-an-sich" to refer to ? a thing as it is in itself, not as it appears to us.
What constitutes the phenomenal realm? The things as they appear to us.
Kant believed that things that pertain to the phenomenal realm are matters of knowledge, and that things that pertain to the noumenal realm are matters of belief and or value True or false? True
Kant thought that we could derive ethical principles without using scripture by using the rule "Act as if the maxim of thy action were to become a universal law of nature" True or False. True
In the logical syllogism "if A, then B," the term"B" is called the antecedent True of False? False
Either you're for me, or you're against me!" is an example of which logical fallacy? Faulty dilemma
"Nature is quite the artist!" is an example of which logical fallacy? Personification
In the statement "All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal." What are the terms. "men"- middle term "Socrates"- Minor Term "Mortal"- Major Term
In the statement "All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal." what are the premises. "All men are mortal..."- Major Premise "Socrates is a man"- Minor Premise "Therefore, Socrates is mortal."- Conclusion
It is possible for a conclusion validly drawn from a logical syllogism to be false. True or False True
Jack notices the rooster always crows shortly before the sun rises. He concludes that the sun rises because the rooster crows. This is an example of which logical fallacy? Post Hoc reasoning
When using the logical syllogism "If A then B," a conclusion drawn by either affirming the antecedent or denying the consequent is said to be valid. True or False? True
Which two of the following are ways to draw valid conclusions from a logical syllogism? Affirming the antecedent and Denying the consequent.
Within philosophy, the term "necessary" indicates that "it is not possible for it to be otherwise" True or False. True
The logical fallacy of defining a key term in a way that presumes the point one is trying to prove is called what? Begging the question
Generally, Socrates concentrated his efforts on defining such moral terms as "virtue, justice," and so forth true or false? True
Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that addresses what? The ultimate nature of reality
The first philosopher to have examined questions of morality and moral absolutes in a systematic way was Anaxagoras true or false? False
What was Pythagoras' insight that prepared the way for contemporary science? That there are numerical patterns in nature
Which branch of philosophy is concerned with knowledge: what can we know, and how can we know it? Epistemology
Which early Greek philosopher first realized that if anything exists in an absolute way, then it cannot change? Parmenides
Which is the branch of philosophy that is dedicated to understanding the question of being and existence, as distinct from broader questions about the ultimate nature of reality? Ontology
Why is Thales considered to be the father of Western philosophy? Because he was the first to propose that the world is orderly and accessible to reason.
Who was the Pre-Socratic philosopher who suggested the existence of a logos, or universal reason? Heraclitus
Definition of Corporeal monism ultimate reality is physical and one
definition of incorporeal monism Ultimate reality is nonphysical and one
Definition of Coporeal pluralism ultimate reality is physical and more than one
definition of incorporeal pluralism Ultimate reality is nonphysical and more than one
Which is correct concerning Aristotle's teaching on the Forms it can be expressed formulaically as "Substance= form + matter" and is called hylomorphism.
Aristotle believed that there cannot be an infinite regress of causes, and that there must therefore be a first cause. He called this first cause the "prime mover" (or unmoved mover) True or False? True
Four types of Causes that Aristotle suggested Material cause, formal cause, efficient cause, and final or Telic cause
Definition of material cause That out of which a thing is made
definition of formal cause That into which a thing is made
definition of efficient cause That by which a thing is made
definition of final or Telic cause The ultimate purpose or goal for the thing which is made.
True or False? Epicureans were concerned about the so-called "hedonistic paradox" that the pursuit of pleasure actually leads to pain, either through frustration or boredom. An Epicurean's goal was to attain optimum pleasure rather that max pleasure. True
In Aristotle's philosophy, a "secondary substance" is? The essential nature of a type of thing (ex books or horses)
What fits into Aristotle's definition of motion as "change?" The process of moving from one location to another, The process of aging The process of learning.
Which one of Aristotle's four causes does secular western science reject? the Telic cause or final cause
T or F? Stoics believed that intelligent rationality, which they termed "logos," permeates all material things and imparts to them unique natures that determine their behavior and characteristics. True
T or F? Stoics believe that we should endure without complaint whatever circumstance comes our way. True
True or False? The One produces the forms as it thinks discursively upon itself, concerning NeoPlatonism? False
What are statements that are true of Plotinus' understanding of reality? All things ultimately flow from the One The further removed a level of reality is from the One, the more corrupted it is. The One is beyond definition and beyond being, thus we can only speak about it through the Way of Negation (what is not)
Which school of philosophy greatly impacted Augustine, and who's influence is often seen in his theology? Platonism
Augustine believed that revelation is the necessary condition for all knowledge. T or F? True
In Augustine's epistemology, what are two statements which are the grounds of knowledge? Authority (of scripture, Christian tradition, the church, parents, etc). Reason and rationality
T or F? Augustine thought that the human mind is an excellent analogy to the unity of the three persons within the Trinity. True
What were some philosophical belief that Augustine held? That man is radically fallen That man is utterly in need of God's grace(enablement) in order to come to God. That God is the source of our faith, not our own wills.
T or F? According to Augustine, evil is nothing other than the absence of good (i.e. evil is not a separate thing from "good," but only its absence). True
According to Augustine, which of the following accurately describe human freedom of will during various stages of human history? In the Garden of Eden, before the Fall, Adam and Eve's state was both posse peccare and posse non peccare. Human experience after the Fall has uniformly been non posse non peccare.
Augustine believed that the material world is innately evil, just as in much of Greek philosophy true or false? False
T or F? Augustine believed that man has an innate belief in God (the sensus divinitatis) imparted by God at birth/ True
Anselm devised an argument for God's existence that goes as follows: "God is a being greater than which non can be conceived. A being that exists is necessarily greater than a being that doesn't exist. thus God exists." What is this argument name> the Ontological arguement
Among Hegel's Critiques of Kant was that Kant's system was too dismissive fo the non-scientific aspects of human existence (the arts, religion, and so forth). True or False? True
what are some elements of hegel's philosophy? He placed great emphasis on history He thought historical development is the dialectical unfolding of the Absolute Spirit He thought historical development takes place through a dialectical process in which a truth claim (thesis) is c
True or False Hegel thought historical development takes place through a dialectical process in which a truth claim (thesis) is challenged by a counterclaim (antithesis) leading to the creation of a synthesis that resolves the debate. True
What are two important consequences of Hegel's philosophy? Usefully, it reveals that one's self-understanding is socially constructed. Negatively, it can legitimize totalitarian regimes because it exalts society over the individual.
The sense of absolute dependence upon the divine identifies what Schleiermacher thought to be .... the essence of religious experience (including Christian religious experience)?
Which philosopher reversed the order of creation: it is not the case that God created man in His image, but that men created God in theirs? Feuerbach
True or False? Marx held a dynamic theory of truth following Hegel's dialectic process. True
Whereas classicist philosophers named man Homo sapiens ( man the wise), Marx named man ? Homo faber (man the maker).
Marx accepted which philosopher's analysis of religion and claimed that religion is "the opiate of the masses." Feuerbach
T or F? The Danish philosopher Kierkegaard is considered to be the father of existentialism. True
What are common elements of existentialism? It emphasizes the irreducibility and primacy of the individual. It places stress on choice and action. It emphasizes personal responsibility.
T or F? The German theologian Karl Barth, who was influenced by Kierkegaard, thought that God's revelation of Christ is primarily personal and immediate rather than propositional. True
T or F? Nietzsche thought that the will to power is the most fundamental human drive, making it even a stronger force than the desire for self-preservation. True
What was Nietzsche critical of? Christianity, cause it emphasizes meekness and submission Darwinism because it ex-halts the principle of self-preservation and suggests purpose within nature.
True or False? Nietzsche's social agenda is to purge Western culture of all remnants of Christian morality. True
T or F? Husserl limits the scope of philosphy to the phenomenal experience, and he concludes that our understanding of things determines their essence rather than the essence of things determines our understanding of them. True
Satre affirmed the dictum "existence precedes essence." True or False True
Sartre believed that there is no such thing as a "human nature" that defines what we should be or how we should live. True or False?/ True
Created by: Inhisfootsteps
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