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Physchology

chapter 2 Brain and Behavior

TermDefinition
The Nervous System The body's electrochemical communication circuitry.
Plasticity The brain's special capacity for change.
Neuron Nerve cell.
Afferent Nerves/Sensory Nerves Nerves that carry information about external environment to brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors.
Neurol Networks Network of nerve cells that integrate sensory input and motor output.
Central Nervous System (CNS) Is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to the other parts of the body.
Somatic Nervous System (SNS) Sensory nerves,function is to convey information from the skin and muscles to the CNS about conditions such as pain and temperature, and motor nerves, whose function is to tell muscles what to do.
Automatic Nervous System (ANS) Body system that take messages to and from the body's internal organs monitoring; breathing, heart-rate,and digestion.
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) Part of the automatic nervous system that arouses the body.
Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) Part of the automatic nervous system that calms the body.
Stress is the response to stressors, which are the circumstances and events that threaten them and tax their coping skills.
Glial Cell Provide support, nutritional benefits,and other functions in the nervous system, keeping neurons running smoothly.
The Cell Body Contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance.
The Dentrites Tree-like fibers that projecting from a neuron, receive information and orient it toward the neuron cell body.
The Axon Is a part of the neuron that carries information away form the cell body towards other cells.
The Myelin Sheath Consisting of a layer of cells containing fat,encases, and insulates most axons.
Resting Potential Is the stable negative charge of an inactive neuron.
Action Potential Describes the brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon
All-or-Nothing Potential Once the electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity, called its threshold, it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing any of its intensity.
Synapses Tiny spaces between neurons; aka synaptic gap.
Terminal Buttons Axon branches out into numerous fibers that end in these structures.
Neurotransmitters Stored in tiny synaptic vesicles (sacs) within the terminal buttons are chemical substances
Acetylcholine (ACh) Stimulates the firing of neurons and is involved in the action of muscles, learning, and memory.
GABA(gamma aminobutyric acid) Is found throughout the central nervous system.
Norepinephrine nhibits the firing of neurons in the central nervous system, but it excites the heart muscle, intestines, and urogenital tract. Stress stimulates the release of norepinephrine
Dopamine helps to control voluntary movement and affects sleep, mood, attention, learning, and the ability to recognize rewards in the environment
Serotonin Is involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, attention, and learning.
Endorphins are natural opiates that mainly stimulate the firing of neurons. Endorphins shield the body from pain and elevate feelings of pleasure.
Oxytocin s a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the experience of love and social bonding.
Agonist is a drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitter's effects.
Antagonist Is a drug that blocks a neurotransmitter's effects.
Brain lesioning Is an abnormal disruption in the tissue of the brain resulting from injury or disease.
Electroencephalograph (EEG) Records the brain's electrical activity. Electrodes placed on the scalp detect brain-wave activity
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT scan or CT scan) produces a three-dimensional image
Positron-Emission Tomography (PET scan) is based on metabolic changes in the brain related to activity.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) nvolves creating a magnetic field around a person's body and using radio waves to construct images of the person's tissues and biochemical activities.
Hindbrain located at the skull's rear, is the lowest portion of the brain. The three main parts of the hindbrain are the medulla, cerebellum, and pons.
Medulla Begins where the spinal cord enters the skull. Controls many vital functions, such as breathing and heart rate. It also regulates our reflexes.
Cerebellum extends from the rear of the hindbrain, just above the medulla.Leg and arm movements are coordinated by the cerebellum
Pons Is a bridge in the hindbrain that connects the cerebellum and the brain stem. Fibers involved in sleep and arousal
Created by: Drawmeaflower