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Rad Protection

Chapter 2 Interaction of X-radiation with Matter

kVp controls ____ or penetrating power. quality
mAs is the time + ____ of photons directed at the patient. quantity
________ dose (D) is the amount of energy received by the atoms of the patients body. Absorbed
When photons in the primary beam pass through matter they can undergo ___ or ___. absorption; scatter (or not interact at all)
Attenuation is the ___ in the number of photons as they pass through matter. reduction
During ___ ____, the filament on the cathode heats up and releases a cloud of electrons. thermionic emission
Bremsstrahlung radiation is also known as ____ radiation. braking (travel at half the speed of light)
During _______ radiation, a projectile electron interacts with an inner shell electron. characteristic
Characteristic radiation is also known as ______ radiation. cascading
At the target, ___% is heat and _% is the x-ray. 99;1
X-rays travel at the speed of light, ____ miles/second. 186,000
At ___ kVp, the majority of x-rays are Brems. 70
At ___ kVp, 15% of x-rays are characteristic radiation. 100
Primary radiation is the radiation produced in the ____. tube
Primary beam is the radiation that passes through the ____. window
_____ radiation is the radiation exiting other than through the window. Leakage
___ radiation are portions of the primary beam that pass through the patient. Remnant (exit, image forming)
Primary radiation is also known as ___ radiation. direct
A ____ is a device placed at the x-ray port to absorb low energy radiaton that does not contribute to the diagnostic value. filter
Filters remove low energy photons and ___ patient skin dose. decrease
Filters are usually made of ___ because of their ___ melting point and ___ Z#. aluminum; high; low
The energy of the diagnostic x-ray beam is between ___ to ___ keV. 20; 150
Average photon in the x-ray beam is about ___ the energy of the most energetic photon. 1/3
____ radiation goes in all different directions from the patient. Isotropic
____ occurs when photons pass through matter and do not interact. Transmission (direct transmission)
During the _____ effect, all the energy of the incoming photon is totally transferred to the K or L-shell electron. Photoelectric
A _____ is an ejected orbital electron. photoelectron
The photoelectric effect is also known as ______ radiation. fluorescent
A chemical with a high atomic number will ____ the chance of photoelectric absorption. increase
Compton scatter is a.k.a _____. incoherent, inelastic or modified scatter.
The Compton photon has ___ energy, a ___ wavelength and ____ frequency than the incident photon. less;longer;lower
Compton scatter is a process in which a photon is _____ absorbed by an outer-shell electron. partially
What is the photon known as that bounces off the orbital electron? recoil/secondary/scattered electron
At ___ kVp, 50% of the interactions is compton and 50% are PE. 50
At ____ kVp, 67% are compton interactions and 33% are PE. 90
An increase in kVp will cause an increase in ____ radiation. scatter
A chemical with an increased binding energy (Lead, barium) will have attenuate ____ photons. more
The Compton photon has ___ energy, a longer wavelength and a lower frequency than the incident photon. less
Coherent scattering (slassic, elastic or unmodified) occurs primarily with low energy x-rays, below ____ keV. 10
In coherent scattering, excess energy is given off as ___ with the exiting photon having the same energy and wavelength as the incident photon. scatter
In pair production, incoming photon interacting with the nucleus must have an energy above ____MeV. 1.02
Two electrons, a ____ and a ____ are produced with the pair production interaction. positron; negatron
Pair productin does not occure significantly until an energy of ___ MeV has been reached. 10
During the ____ ____, matter is converted back into energy as a result of a positron combining with a negative electron, which creates two photons moving in opposite directions. annihilation reaction
Photodisintegration occurs above ____ MeV. 10
During photodisintegration, a high energy electron (radiation therapy) is absorbed by the _____. nucleus
After the nucleus absorbs the electron in photodisintegration, the nucleus becomes ____ and begins to emit neutrons, protons, alpha particles and or gamma rays. radioactive