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Ch. 13 Physics

Screen-Film Rad Technique

What are the four exposure factors? kvp, mA, exposure time, distance(SID)
What are the types of filtration? inherent, added, compensating
Kvp controls ______, _________, ________ contrast, penetrability, image noise
What are the types of generators? single phase, three phase, high frequency
How much voltage ripple is on 3 phase 6 pulse generator? 14 percent
How much voltage ripple is on the half wave generator? 100 percent
How much voltage is on the 3phase 12 pulse generator? 4 percent
Radiolucent tissue _________ few x-rays and appears ______. on the radiograph. attenuates, black
Radiopaque tissue _______ x-rays and appears ________ on the radiograph. absorbs, white
What tool is used to measure body part thickness? Calipers
What are the image quality factors? contrast, optical density, detail, and distortion
What controls OD? mAs and distance
to see a change in OD, a change of _____ in mAs needs to be made 30 percent
Detail is the _______ of the radiograph? sharpness
Kvp varies with the thickness of the anatomical part by ____ kVp/cm. 2
Fixed kvp requires _______ kvp, which has ______ pt dose high, lower
Fixed kvp _____ contrast, ______ latitude low, wide
Variable kvp has fixed ______ and ______ contrast mAs, higher
What are the three pt factors? pathology, thickness, body composition
____ is the microprocessor technology to program the technique chart into the control unit. APR
The unit of electric current is the _____. ampere (A)
1 A = ____C/s = _____electrons/s 1; 6.3x10(18)
A double in mA would be a 100% increase or ____ of the x-ray tube current. doubling
mAs does not influence radiation _____. quality
A ____ ____ generator automatically adjust the highest possible mA at the shortest exposure time. falling-load
Time and mA can be used to compensate for each other ______. (p239) indirectly
____ is one measure of electrostatic charge. mAs
____ hs no effect on radiation quality. Distance
The large focal spot provide for a shorter exposure time, which minimizes ___ ____. motion blur
More x-rays can be produced with a ___ focal spot. (higher heat capacity) large
____focal spots are used mainly for fine-detail radiography. Small
The value of inherent filtration is approximately ___ mm Al equivalent. 0.5
The variable-aperture light localizing collimator provides ___ mm Al equivalent. 1
__ mm Al filter is inserted between the x-ray tube housing and the collimator. 1
Total filtration in the x-ray tube is approximately ___ mm Al. 2.5
What percentage ripple is on a high frequency generator? <1%
Name the four types of body habitus: sthenic, hyposthenic, hypersthenic and asthenic
The chest has ___ subject contrast; the abdomen has ___ subject contrast. high;low
Some pathology is ____, causing the tissue to be more radiolucent. destructive
Some pathology can be ___, causing an increase in mass density and causing the tissue to be more radiopaque. additive
Examples of radiolucent pathology: atrophy, bowel obstruction, cancer, degenerative arthritis, emphysema, osteoporosis, pneumothorax
Examples of radiopaque pathology: aortic aneurysm, ascites, atelectasis, cirrhosis, pleural effusion, pneumonia, sclerosis
The mAs value must be changed by approximately ___% to produce a perceptible change in OD. 30
An increase in kVp of 15% is equivalent to _____ the mAs. doubling (15% rule)
A 15% increase in kVp accompanied by a half reduction in mAs results in the same ___. OD
kVp is the major factor used in controlling radiographic ____. contrast
High contrast = ____ scale contrast short (few shades of gray)
Low contrast = ____ scale contrast long (many shades of gray)
Grids with ____ ratio increase contrast. high (grids remove scatter radiation from reaching IR)
___ describes the sharpness of appearance of small structures on the radiograph. Detail
Sharpness of image detail is best measured by ____ _____. spatial resolution
____ focal spots and ___ SID's will produce the best possible image detail. Small; increased
Visibility of image detail is best measured by ____ _____. contrast resolution
Distortion is controlled by _____ _____. patient positioning
What are the four types of exposure technique charts? variable kV, fixed kV, high kV and automatic exposure
What is the most important factor when talking about AEC? patient positioning - area of interest must be placed over phototiming device
____ allows the tech to control selection of kVp and mAs by graphics on the control console. APR (anatomically programmed radiography)
The principal advantage of tomography is improved ____ resolution. contrast
The ____ from the object pane an anatomical structure is, the more blurred its image will be. farther
The _____ the tomographic angle, the thinner the tomographic section. larger
Only objects lying in the object ____ are properly imaged. plane
A ____ focal spot must be used for magnification radiography to help reduce the loss of image detail. small
An increase in OID will result in a ____ of scatter that reaches the IR. decrease (air gap technique)