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OCD researchers

What are obsessions? Recurrent thoughts, images or ideas. They are distressing and are unsuccessfully repressed by the individual.
What are compulsions? Irresistible physical or mental acts that the sufferer feels compelled to carry out to neutralises the obsessions or to prevent a dissaster. Performing compusions is not pleasurable, but it can releve anxiety in the short term.
Kessler et.al Community study showing rates of OCD are approximately 3%. This is higher than previously found and could still be to low, as many sufferers do not come forward to receve help and are secretive about their condision.
Yayura-Tobias and Neziroglu Found that OCD was not a culture bound disorder, it has been found in other country’s where the features of the disorder are the same, but the obsessions and compulsions vary.
Jakes et.al Suggested that OCD can be divided into sub disorders, those with checking compulsions or those with cleaning compulsions.
Black et.al Relatives of OCD sufferers are 5x more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder.
Pauls et.al The prevalence of OCD in relatives of those with the disorder is similar to that of the general populations (2.5%).
Billet et.al Meta review of 14 twin studies, concordance for OCD: MZ= 67.5% DZ= 31%
Feng et.al Mice lacking in Sapap3 gene display high anxiety and excessive cleaning rituals. With additions of Sapap3 protein, behaviour returns to normal.
Insel et.al Found that SSRI's only produce up to 50% improvement in OCD patients, with some showing no change.
Wise and Rapoport There is evidence to suggest that OCD is related to an abnormality in the Basal Ganglia. This abnormality is often present in Parkinsons, Torretts and Huntington's, all of these dissorders can also involve obsessions and compulsions.
Max et.al Damage to the basal ganglia from traumatic brain injury can give rise to OCD.
Rapoport et.al Surgery to legion the connection between the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex can reduce symptoms of OCD in severe cases.
Aylward et.al Basal ganglia impairment has not been found in significant prevalence in OCD sufferers compared with controls. This was using neuro-imaging.
Menzies et.al An MRI scan of 3 groups 1- those with OCD, 2- 1* relatives of group 1's without OCD. and 3- unrelated non OCD. R = 1+2 < stop response task, tests stop rep behaviours< 3. 1+2 Less grey mater in regulatory regions than group 3.
Pigott et.al No deferences in levels of serotonin in those with OCD compared to controls. Therefore is evidence against neurochemical imbalance theory and support the treatment aetiology fallacy.
Milby and Webber Found no higher incidence of toilet training issues in people with OCD compared to controls. This is evidence against the psychodynamic model of OCD put forward by Freud.
Rauchman and Hodgson Found little evidence to suggest that OCD rates were higher in those with an anal obsessive personality. Also, it can sometimes be difficult to asses wheather personality traits are a result of the dissorder. Also, some people display but no OCD.
Rauchman and Hodgson's theory of OCD Cognitive behavioural theory. Individuals with OCD are depressed and anxious, so they find it hard to dismiss thoughts. All have intrusive thoughts but OCD can't dismiss them. Use C as safety behaviours to reduce neg consequences of O.
Salkovskis and Kirk Asked OCD patients to keep a diary of O's. On days where they were instructed to suppress O's, levels were significantly higher than on non suppressing days.
Rauch and Jenike SSRI's were effective in reducing OCD symptoms in children and adults.
Foa et.al Clomipramine was superior to placebo in relieving OCD, it was less effective than ERP.
Effectiveness of psychosergery to treat OCD. 25 - 70% effectiveness. But is drastic and irreversible and can cause sezures and other difficulty’s (Marry Lou zimmerman). Also, issues of informed consent.
Salkovis and Kirk Found a moderate success rate for ERP but only completely asymptomatic in nearly 50% of patients. But it is quite common for patients to drop out.
Van Oppen et.al Pure cognitive interventions and ERP are both not as effective on there own as they are combined.
Created by: uvviolets