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Rad Protection

Chapter 1 Intro to Rad Protection

X-rays were discovered in ____. 1895
X-rays are a form of ______ radiation. ionizing
An exposure to radiation can create ____ atoms, create _____ radicals that produce toxins within the cell and can change the ___ of the cell. unstable; free; function
What does ALARA stand for? What is another name for ALARA? As low as reasonably achievable - ORP, Optimization for Radiation Proection
A CXR has __ mrem and a CT Abd has ____ mrem 10; 1000
Radiation exposure from a CT scan is about ___ times higher than an ordinary CXR. 100
____ is energy that passes from one location to another and can have many manifestation. Radiation
What are the two types of radiation? electromagnetic and particulate
BERT stands for ____ and the annual exposure is ___ mrem. Background equivalent radiatin time; 620
X-radiation and Gamma radiation are classified as ____ radiation. electromagnetic
X-rays are produced ___ the nucleus by accelerating electrons. (have no mass/charge) outside
Gamma rays are produced ___ the nucleus. inside
Give two examples of particulate radiation: alpha and beta
Alpha radiation is produced by _____ disintegration; it is made up of ___ particles. nuclear; 4
Alpha radiation has very ___ particles and ___ penetrability. large; low
Beta radiation is produced by ___ ____; beta is ____ times lighter than alpha particles. pair production; 8000
Beta penetrates ____ times more than alpha radiation. 100
Natural background radiation is ___ mrem vs. ___ mrem of manufactured radiation. 295;65
____ radiation are radioactive materials from the earth. (uranium, radium, thorium) Terrestrial
___ radiation comes from solar rays. Cosmic
____ radiation comes from the body tissues. (potassium-40, carbon-14) Internal
____ gas is found in the air. Radon
___ gas is the largest contributor of natural radiation. Radon
____ gas is found in granite and come up through the soil. Radon
Radon gas causes ___ to ___ radon induced lung cancer deaths in the US each year. 800; 21000
Porcelain dentures contain ____ and expose the mouth to ___ mrem/year. potassium-40;130
Air travel exposes us to about __ mrem/hour flight. 1
Full body scanners emit ___ photons, which are low energy. terahertz
Who approved full body scanners? FDA
____ body scans in a years would equal the dose to 1 CXR. 1000
Average dose received within a 50 mi radius in Three Mile Island was __ mrem. 8
Abdomen or pelvis dose fro a CT is ____ mSv. 8-10
What tissue is the most sensitive in the head area? eyes
Hematologic depression occurs at ___ rad; temporary sterility occurs at ___ rad and permanent sterility occurs at ___ rad. 25; 200-250; 500-600