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Unit 4:Energy Effect

Gravity Acceleratation 9.8 m/s2
amplitude the height of the wave
The two main categories of energy Kinetic and Potential energy
conduction the transfer of heat energy from one object to another object through direct contact.
convection the transfer of heat through a fluid (either gas or liquid) caused by molecular motion
crest top of a wave
elastic potential energy energy that can be determined from the objects stretch or compression.
electromagnetic spectrum arrangement of electromagnetic radiation from weakest to strongest: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, UV, x-ray, gamma
energy The ability to do work. Energy is NOT matter
energy chain a map of what happens to energy, where it goes, and how it changes in a system.
energy transfer the movement of the same energy from one form to another form.
energy transformation the movement of the same energy from one form to another form.
Force (F) The push and pull on an object F=mass x acceleration
frequency how many waves are made per second
friction a force that opposes the motion objects that touch as they move past each other
gamma rays electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and the highest frequencies (strongest)
gravitational potential energy stored energy due to position (hanging object)
gravity attractive force between any two objects that have mass
inertia When an object at rest tends to resist being moved or when an object is moving to resist the change in speed or direction until an outside from acts on the object.
infrared waves second on the electromagnetic spectrum going from lowest to highest frequency. It can be felt as heat.
Joule the unit for any form of energy and work. It equals 1 kgxm2/s2
kinetic energy (KE) energy in motion
law of conservation of energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed only transformed or transferred
mass how much matter is in an object (kg)
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
mechanical waves waves that require a medium. Example ocean waves, sound waves, and earthquakes
medium the matter through which waves move through
microwaves EM waves with a relatively long wavelength used for communication (cell phones and satellites) and cooking
infrared waves Military uses this type of em waves in their night vision goggles.
Newton the unit for force which equals 1 kg x m/s2
Power how much work is done in a given amount of time P=W/t
Radiation Energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles.
radio waves electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies
Gamma rays the most powerful waves on the em spectrum, but they can travel a great distance
radio waves these are the weakest waves on the EM spectrum but it can travel the longest distance
x-rays these waves are absorbed by your bones so that we can see small breaks and fractures in them.
electromagnetic waves these waves are formed when the electric field combines with a magnetic field.
microwaves these waves are used to heat up your popcorn and also used in newer cell phones today
ultra violet waves these waves can cause skin cancer. They are also used by many insects to see.
gravity weakest of the four fundamental forces but the most important in keeping planets in their orbit. It is only significant if one or both objects are very massive like a planet or a star.
visible light the light that humans see (ROYGBIV)red is the longest and weakest and violet is the shortest and strongest wavelength.
Total Energy (TE) TE=Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy +Heat
trough the bottom part of the waves.
mass and distance two factors that are used to calculate gravity
ultra violet waves as compared to visible light, have a shorter wavelength and higher frequency; invisible, help you absorb vitamin D, get a good tan, but also cause cancer
velocity the speed of an object with a direction
watt unit for power
wave a disturbance that carries only energy through matter and space
weight how much gravity is pulling on an object's mass
KE mostly depends on what variable the velocity of the object since velocity is squared and mass is halfed.
Which state of matter does mechanical waves travel fastest through Solids because the molecules are more closely packed together than with gases or liquids. So energy is transferred from one particle to the next faster.
work Work=force x distance
x-rays higher frequency than uv rays but lower than gamma rays; used in medicine to take picture of solids inside objects such as bones.