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CohenHRMfinal

TermDefinition
Alternative work schedules the arrangement of hours of the day, days of the week, and place of work that differs from the traditional 8 to 5 hours, monday-friday days, and in-office work site
Benefits all indirect payments provided to employees as part of their membership in the organization
Bonus a one-time payment made as a supplement to or replacement for a raise that is added to ones base pay
comparable worth different jobs, equal in value to the organization, should be paid the same
cost-of-living adjustment across-the-board pay change based on economic conditions, not performance
Equal Pay Act of 1963 Prohibits sex discrimination in compensating people doing substantially the same jobs
external equity the comparison of the pay of employees with the pay of those performing similar jobs in other organizations.
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) Basic federal statute that established a minimum wage and hours of work
Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990 Mandated that the 30% public-private sector pay gap be closed gradually by the end of the century
Gainsharing financial gains as a result of organization-wide performance are shared with employees
Herzberg's theory of motivation determinants of job satisfaction, such as recognition, relate to job content.
Individual equity perceived fairness of individual pay decisions
internal equity comparison of what employees are paid doing similar jobs in an organization
job evaluation systematic determination of the value of each job in relation to others in an organization
labor market a geographical area or occupational field within which the forces of supply and demand, often constrained by political factors, interact to affect the size of the workforce and its pay level
merit pay system under which permanent increases in base pay are based on performance
pay banding when several pay grades are combined, creating a broader salary range for a position
pay compression the narrowing of differentials between pay grades in an agency
pay equity the perception that the compensation received is equal in value to the work performed
point factor analysis job evaluation method that assigns points to compensable factors, which are summed to determine pay
seniority pay pay determined by length of service
skill pay compensation for skills that employees have, develop, and use in a multiple-task environment
adoption assistance includes benefits ranging from time off to reimbursement of expenses following adoption of a child
compressed workweek a flex option where the number of hours worked per week is condensed into fewer days
defined-benefit plan a pension plan that guarantees a pre-set lifetime pension payment
defined-contribution plan a pension plan similar to a 401(k) account with the attendant risks of a volatile stock market
domestic partnership coverage refers to benefits such as health insurance and sick or bereavement leave that may be made available to a person designated as a domestic partner of the employee
downshifting process of scaling back career ambitions and giving more time and attention to family and personal needs
downsizing reducing the number of employees, often caused by actions such as reductions in force, outsourcing, or base closures
Employee assistance programs (EAPs) programs usually offering counseling or referral services for people having problems with alcohol, drug abuse, personal debt, domestic abuse, or other problems that impede job-related performance
Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 provides eligible workers with up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave during any 12 month period for childbirth and adoption, for caregiving to a child, elderly parent or spouse with a serious health problem, or for personal illness
Flextime work schedules that allow flexible starting and quitting times but specify a required number of hours within a particular time period
Generation X those born between 1960 and 1980
Hard HRM a perspective on human resource management that sees employees as costs to be minimized and resources to be used for maximum return
Hidden workforce temporary employees or outside workers (consultants, contractors)
Job sharing enables two employees to split the responsibilities, hours, salary, and (usually) the benefits of a full-time position
Leave sharing a type of employee-to-employee job benefit whereby healthy workers donate sick time or other benefits to coworkers in crisis
New Millennials those born after 1980
Nontraditional families includes gay and lesbian couples, unmarried couples in committed relationships, single-parent families, and reconstituted families
parental leave provides leave from work for the employee to care for needy family members
sandwich generation workers who are sandwiched between the responsibilities for young children and elderly parents
soft HRM regards employees as an asset worthy of investment and a resource of competitive advantage
telecommuters people who work away from the traditional work locale by means of an electronic linkup with the workplace
3 o'clock syndrome attention to work-related tasks wanes as employees begin to think about children ready to leave school and return home
V-time voluntary reduced time. Enables parents to meet their caregiving responsibilities, provides an alternative to layoffs or the use of part-time replacements, and helps phase workers into retirement
Wellness programs programs with a goal of altering unhealthy personal habits and lifestyles and promoting behaviors more conducive to health and well-being
adult learning theory a theory of employee training that integrates employee experience, active participation, motivation for self-improvement, problem solving, and control over the learning material
coaching the training practice of assigning an experienced employee to help other employees master various job situations
cross-training the practice of training employees to fill multiple jobs
decentralization of training the shifting of responsibilities for training from the central human resource department to operating departments and line managers
development efforts that prepare employees for assuming future responsibilities
education Prepares people for the future by helping them to acquire necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities
HAIR qualities Helicopter, analysis, imagination, reality
learning acquiring and using information from a broad range of sources that help a person to do better in his or her job
learning plateau a period during which employees must first fully absorb and assimilate the training material before they learn more
mentoring a development approach through which employees develop their career potential through ongoing, periodic dialogue with more experienced personnel
motivation in training a key principle in training is that people learn better when they are eager to acquire new knowledge, skills, and abilities; are encouraged to seek out application opportunities and make them work; and are not readily discouraged by obstacles
needs assessment in the context of training, a strategy that involves surveying employees and managers about their training needs.
on-the-job training learning that employees undergo as the unique requirements of their specific jobs
organizational learning efforts that get agencies, departments, and individuals thinking about what and how their organization or unit is doing and what it could or should be doing differently or better
overlearning the assimilation of material so that it becomes second nature
positive reinforcement feedback that helps employees reduce errors and meet standards and enhances their motivation to excel
principles of learning tenets for the effectiveness of training that involve increasing employee motivation, relevance, transference, attention to general principles, repetition, feedback, and positive reinforcement
rule of seven states that people must practice something seven times in order to master it
rule of three states that people only hear things that have been said three times
seminars and presentations common training strategies for conveying information
simulation a training strategy whereby job conditions and situations are simulated, such as responses to natural disasters and the like
strategic focus (training) a perspective toward training and development that focuses on meeting the performance, risk management, and human capital needs of organizations
surveys (training) Method of collecting information, often involving the perceptions of a target population or sample about some topic.
training efforts to increase KSAs to better meet the requirements of present jobs
training evaluation (appendix) assessments of the effectiveness-of-training efforts that usually focus on both behavioral changes and results
transference the extent to which training material is relevant in actual job situations
actor/observer bias an actor sees his or her behavior as blameless; when observing the same behavior in another, however, it is blameworthy
behaviorally anchored rating system (BARS) behavioral approach to appraisals, consisting of a series of scales based on key dimensions of performance
behavior-based evaluations systems the evaluation of performance based on specific behaviors
cognitive information processing theory maintains that appraisal is a complex memory task involving data acquisition, storage, retrieval, and analysis. To process data, subjective categories are employed that in turn can produce rating errors.
compatibility, "similarity", or liking error appraisals may reflect the evaluator's tendency to rate highly those he or she likes or who are compatible with him or her
contaminated (evaluations) Occurs when evaluations include factors unrelated to actual performance
contrast error tendency to rate people relative to others instead of a performance criteria
critical incident technique records key acts assumed to make the difference between effective and ineffective performance
deficient (evaluations) Occurs when evaluations fail to include all essential elements of performance
electronic monitoring via e-mail and video surveillance, website blocking, GPS tracking, this form of monitoring is used in an attempt to increase productivity, improve quality, and reduce costs.
error of central tendency all staff receive average ratings or all dimensions of performance are rated average
exit interview a session conducted by the supervisor or human resource department in an attempt to learn why an employee is leaving
implicit personality theory suggests that people generally judge the "whole person" based on limited data (stereotyping based on first impressions, or the spillover effect); ratings then tend to justify these global opinions rather than the accurately gauge performance
leniency error (santa claus effect) all individuals or all performance measures are rated favorably
management by objectives (MBO) results-oriented rating system based on how well managers achieve predetermined goals
no money effect occurs when either there are insufficient funds to distribute or they are awarded on an across-the-board basis
outcome bias the tendency of raters to see the result of performance as the most important consideration in evaluation regardless or whether or not it was the consequence of factors beyond the employee's control
organization-centered evaluations organizational processes are monitored and evaluated on the premise that employees will work effectively within the system if it is well designed by management
peer (team) evaluations method of appraisal in which employees at the same level in the organization rate each other.
positive discipline a step-by-step participatory procedure that encourages employees to take responsibility for correcting problems.
progressive punishment an adverse-action approach that uses penalties with increasing severity and provides opportunities to correct problems prior to termination (or progressive discipline).
recency effect gives undue weight to recent occurrences when evaluations are done.
results-based systems rating format that emphasizes what employees produce.
self-appraisals a rating completed by the employee himself or herself.
severity error all individuals or performance dimensions are given an unfavorable rating.
spillover (halo, black mark) effect an unusually good or poor trait or performance affects the entire rating. also known as the halo effect or 'horns' effect.
termination interview a session conducted by the supervisor or human resource department informing the employee tat she is dismissed from employment at the organization.
360 degree evaluations systems (multirater systems) superiors, peers, subordinates, and sometimes people outside the organization rate one another
trait-based systems systems to examine employees for selected personal characteristics believed to be important in working effectively
bargaining unit determination identifies whom a union or other association in negotiation sessions will represent
Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 federal law replacing the civil service commission with two agencies: the U.S OPM as the staff arm of the chief executive, and the US Merit Systems Protection Board to adjudicate employee appeals.
cooperative problem solving a form of labor-management relations characterized by joint deliberations and planning to address pressing workplace problems.
doctrine of harmony relationship between labor and mgmt in which both sides emphasize cooperation, service orientation, participation, and the public interest.
doctrine of hostility relationship between labor and mgmt under traditional collective bargaining (adversarial, conflictual, confrontational).
doctrine of sovereignty maintains that government has a responsibility to protect all societal interests. Therefore, it is inappropriate to require it to share power with interest groups (e.g., unions in negotiations) or dilute managerial rights.
Federal Labor Relations Authority FLRA the federal administrative unit charged with overseeing, investigating, and enforcing rules pertaining to labor-mgmt relations
free rider in the context of labor-mgmt relations, one who is a worker in a bargaining unit who acquires a benefit from union representation without the effort or costs that accompany union membership
meet-and-confer rights laws requiring agency heads to discuss, but not to settle, grievances
open shop a union can represent workers, bu the nonunion workers have no financial obligations to the union.
representation election an election to determine whether a union will be recognized as the exclusive bargaining agent for workers in the unit.
right-to-work state a state where mandatory union membership is outlawed.
special responsibility theory maintains that public employees hold critical positions in society and therefore should not be permitted to strike.
traditional bargaining two bargaining teams opposing each other across the table, each side engaging in zero-sum posturing and demands.
work stoppages strikes
agency shop Employee is not required to join hte union but must contribute a service charge to cover collective bargaining, grievance processes, and arbitration costs
arbitration a dispute resolution procedure that relies on a neutral third party who conducts hearings, researches contentious issues, and makes binding recommendations.
certification of bargaining agent action by the appropriate administrative agency recognizing that an exclusive bargaining agent for a unit is appropriately constituted
collective bargaining a process whereby labor and management representatives meet to set terms and conditions of employment for employees in a bargaining unit
dues check-off employee may select payroll deduction option to pay union dues to representing union
fact-finding a dispute resolution procedure that relies on a neutral third party who conducts hearings, researches contentious issues, and makes nonbinding recommendations for consideration
final-offer arbitration the arbitrator's decision is restricted to the position taken by one or the other of the parties. This can include selection of a position taken by one side or the other on all issues taken together (by package) or selection on an issue-by-issue basis
grievance arbitration also called rights arbitration. Used to resolve outstanding disputes regarding employee grievances
impasse procedures procedures, typically involving third parties, established to reconcile differences between labor and management
interest arbitration refers to arbitration dealing with the terms of the negotiated contract; it can be voluntary or compulsory
maintenance of membership employee is obligated to maintain union membership in the representative union once affiliated during the life of the contract
med-arb requires an arbitrator to begin with mediation, settle as many disputes as feasible, and move to arbitration only on items that remain contentious
mediation a dispute resolution procedure that relies on a neutral 3rd party who attempts to facilitate communication and bring the parties together to reach an agreement
principled negotiations negotiation process that stresses identification of common ground between labor and management, focuses on cooperative problems solving, and thrives in an open, trusting environment
problem-solving bargaining resolution-oriented discussion leading to mutually agreeable and beneficial answers to common problems
productivity bargaining labor-mgmt negotiations on matters affecting the efficiency and effectiveness of government operations
Public Employee Relations Boards (PERBs) state administrative agencies typically charged with determining appropriate bargaining units, overseeing certification elections, and resolving unfair labor practices.
Traditional Bargaining two bargaining teams opposing each other across the table, each side engaging in zero-sum posturing and demands.
unfair labor practices practices by unions or employers that are unfair and legally prohibited.
union shop new employees must join the representative union after a certain number of days specified in the collective bargaining agreement.
Whipsaw effect gains by one union might be used to justify benefits for another.
Created by: Curtlyn
 

 



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