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Basics of Balance

basics of balance outline

The maintenance of the COG over the BOS in a given sensory environment Balance Stability
Balance Stability + Gaze Stability = ? Postural Control
3 pathways of organization Sensory Input, Central Processing, Motor Output
3 sensory modalities Vision, Vestibular, Somatosensory
3 levels of motor control Reflexes, Automatic, Voluntary
3 postural strategies Ankle, Hip, Stepping
Dominant sensory input under normal conditions; includes joint & muscle proprioceptors, touch & pressure receptors; Receptors give CNS info about body's position in space Somatosensory modality
Plays a significant role when somatosensory is inaccurate; Gives reference of verticality & information about motion of the head Vision Modality
Minor role when we have useful somatosensory & visual inputs but it is critical when somatosensory or visual are misleading or unavailable Vestibular Modality
Sensory Weighting on a Stable Surface 70% Somatosensory; 20% Vestibular; 10% Vision
Sensory Weighting on an Unstable Surface 60% Vestibular; 30% Vision; 10% Somatosensory
Muscle spindles improve stiffness properties of the muscle, controlling the effects of external disturbances Stretch Reflex
Triggered by external stimuli, occur at fixed latencies, relatively stereotypical & coordinated actions of multiple muscle groups. Amplitude & pattern adapt to task (hip, ankle, stepping strategies) Automatic Postural Movements
Which system of movement control can occur in the presence or absence of external stimuli Voluntary Postural Movement
Which strategy shifts the COM by rotating the body as a rigid mass from the ankle joints? Mm activity begins in the distal muscle (ant. tib, then quad, then abs); Used when on stable/firm surface & with small perturbations Ankle Strategy
Which strategy controls mvmt of COM by flexing & extending the hips; Used when ankles can't exert appropriate torque; Mm activation occurs proximal to distal; Used on small/unstable surfaces with larger & faster perturbations Hip Strategy
Which strategy is used when COM is displaced outside BOS? Used in response to fast, large postural perturbations; Vestibular dysfunction can influence which strategy is used Stepping Strategy
What is the furthest distance in any direction a person can lean away from midline without altering the BOS? Limits of Stability
Normal AP sway in adults is ___ degrees from posterior to anterior 12.5 degrees; 8 forward & 4.5 backward
Normal lateral sway 16 degrees
Balance Dysfunction Usually never just 1 cause; May be a major cause with several minor causes; Can be accumulation of multiple minor causes
Causes of balance dysfunction Weakness, sensory loss or decrease, loss of joint mobility, central processing problems
Created by: 1190550002