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AP Psychology Unit 1

Ap Psychology's History and Approaches

empiricism the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
structuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
functionalism a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish
experimental psychology the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
behaviorism the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
humanistic psychology historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth
cognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
psychology the science of behavior and mental processes
nature-nurture issue the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
natural selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
levels of analysis the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
biopsychosocial approach an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
biological psychology a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. (Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists.)
evolutionary psychology the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
psychodynamic psychology a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
behavioral psychology the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
cognitive psychology the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
social-cultural psychology the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
psychometrics the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
basic research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
developmental psychology a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
educational psychology the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
personality psychology the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
social psychology the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
applied research scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
human factors psychology a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use
counseling psychology a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
clinical psychology a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
psychiatry a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
SQ3R a study method incorporating five steps Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review
Created by: mbehm



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