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Psych Test Three

Longitudinal Cross-Sections research methods that involve observation of all of a population, or a representative subset, at one specific point in time
Prenatal Devolopment Development from conception to birth
Temperament Person's behavioral style or characteristic way of responding to the environment
Easy Children (temperament) 40% of study group, pleasant moods, adaptable, positive, regular body patterns
Attachment (psychological devopment) Strong affectionate bond a child forms with mother or primary caregiver
Secure Attachment 65% of infants, distressed when separated, eager to connect, then shows interest in play, more responsive, obedient, cooperative, and content, show advanced social skills and friendships
Piaget's Theory Changes in schemes underlie 4 stages of cognitive development
Scheme (Piaget's Theory) Cognitive structure or concept used to identify and interpret information
Assimilation (Piagetian Terms) Process by which new objects, events, or experiences, or information is incorporated into existing schemes (child calling any male "Daddy")
Object Permanence Realization that objects continue to exist, even after they can no longer be perceived
Piaget's stages of cognitive development describes the stages of normal intellectual development, from infancy through adulthood
Adolescent person fable Exaggerated sense of personal uniqueness and indestructabillity
Imaginary Audience Adolescents believe they are (or will be) the focus of attention in social situations & others will be as critical or approving as they are.
Authoritarian Parenting Set rules, expect obedience, punish (often physically), value obedience to authority, uncommunicative, unresponsive, distant, Preschoolers are withdrawn, anxious, unhappy. Low intellect, lack of social skills, especially with boys
Erickson's Psychosocial development explain eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood.
Instinctual Motivations motivation is the result of biological, genetic programming. Thus, all beings within a species are programmed for the same motivations.
Extrinsic Motications Activities motivated by the pleasant or unpleasant consequences that follow them
Intrinsic Motivations Activities motivated without external rewards, activities done for the joy of doing them
James Lange Theory An event causes physiological arousal. You experience emotion only after you interpret the physical responce
Emotion Identifiable feeling state involving: Physiological arousal, cognitive appraisal, outward behaviors
Approach-Approach Choice between two positive alternatives
PTSD Symptoms Flashbacks, nightmares, intrusive memories, anxiety, combat related guilt, survivor guilt
Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Stages The predictable sequence of reactions (stages) that organisms show in response to stressors
Socioeconomic status A collective term for economic, occupational, and educational factors that influence an individual’s relative position in society
Socioeconomic Status and Stress Low-SES individuals suffer from stress-related illnesses and higher levels of stress hormones
5 stages of grief Process which a person goes though in order to deal with traumatic events.
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Individuals progress though 8 psychosocial stages
Teratogen Harmful agents in prenatal environment, depends on intensity and time during development. Heroin/cocaine/crack: miscarriage, premature, low weight, hard breathing, defects, fetal death
Problem-Focused Coping changing or eliminating the source of the stress
Emotion-focused coping managing the emotions that accompany the perception of stress
Conception Beginning of prenatal period,takes place in Fallopian tubes, fertilization
Zygote Cell that results from fertilization, during first 2 weeks there is rapid cell division, about the size of a period.
Germinal Zygote, 1-2 weeks
Embryo 3-8 weeks, devoloping human organism, major systems (organs and body structures) devolop
Fetus Week 9-birth, rapid growth, fetus can respond to outside stimuli (sounds)
Critical Period Period so important to development that a harmful environmental influence at this time can: cause birth defects, and later intellectual or social development
Difficult Children (Temperament) 10% of study group, generally unpleasant, negative, intense emotional reactions, irregular body functions
Slow-to-Warm-Up Children (temperament) 15% of study group, tends to withdraw, slow to adapt, somewhat negative
Peronality Molded by continuous interaction of temperament and environment
Under-controlled/Impulsive Children Aggressive, danger seeking, impulsive, strong and negative emotions
Over-controlled children Social withdrawals, lack in social potency, submissive, follower
Avoidant Attachment 20% of infants, not responsive to parent when present, not troubled when parent leaves, avoids parent at return, no more attention than strangers. Mothers tend to show little affection, generally unresponsive to infant needs/crying
Resistant Attachment 10-15% of infants, seeks&prefer close contact with parent, branch out&explore, angry&pushes parent away at return, hard to comfort even after picked up
Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment Acts contradictory/disorentated when reunited, looks away when held, goes to parent expressionless or depressed, dazed/vacant/frozen when being calmed
Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years)Infants gain understanding of world through senses and motor activities
Preoperational Stage Symbolic Funtion: Understanding one this is another (word/object/drawing, words present objects), Pretend play
Concrete Stage (7-11/12 years) Reversibility: Any change in shape/position/order of matter can be reversed mentally
Formal Operations (11/12 years and beyond) Apply logical thought to abstract, verbal, and hypothetical situations and to problems in past/present/future
Authoritative Parenting High, but realistic standards, reasons with child, limits, open communication and independence, discuss rules, warm, nurturant, supportive, responsive, respect for children. Child is mature, happy, self-reliant, self-controlled, assertive,
Permissive Parenting Few rules/demands, don't enforce rules, allow children to make own decisions. CHildren are immature, impulsive, dependent, not self-controlled or self-reliant
Trust vs. Mistrust (birth - 1 year) Depends on degree and regularity of care, love, and affection they receive from mother or primary caregiver
Autonomy Vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3 years) CHildren demonstrate independence by saying "no." Physical and mental abilities develop
Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years) Initiate activities, plan tasks, develop motor skills
Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11 years) Children begin to enjoy and take pride in accomplishments, inferiority develops if child rebuffed by parents/teachers
Identity Vs. Role Confusion (11-22 years) Identity crisis should lead teens to isea of how they fit into the world, healthy identity leads to next stage
Intimacy Vs. Isolation (22-40 years) Leeds to finding a life partner or acceptance of single life
Generativity Vs. Stagnation (40-65 years) Desire to guide the next generation via parenting, teaching, or mentoring
Ego Integrity Vs. Despair (65+ years) Acceptance of one's life in preparation for facing death
Denial (1) Shock and disbelief, "this is not right."
Anger (2) Anger, resentment, and envy
Bargaining (3) Often with God, making a deal to postpone death
Depression or Sadness (4) Sadness over past and impending losses
Acceptance (5) Struggling against death ends, contemplating its coming without fear or dispair
Cannon-Band Theory An event causes a physiological and emotional response at the same time. One doesn't cause the either.
Schachter-Singer Theory Event causes physiological arousal. You must then be able to identify the reason behind it in order to label emotion
Lazarus Theory Event occurs, cognitive appraisal is made then the emotion and physiological arousal follows.
Alarm stage (1) Burst of energy that aids in dealing with the stressful situation, Adrenal cortex releases hormones called glucocorticoids, Increased heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels
Resistance Stage (2) Effort to resist or adapt, hormone continues to be releases, length depends on strength of stressor and ability to adapt
Exhaustion Stage (3) Occurs if failed to resist stressor, energy is depleted, disintegration and death may follow
Avoidance-Avoidance Forced choice between two negative alternatives
Approach-Avoidance Choice with good and bad alternative
Conflict Stress arising from knowing that choosing one choice foregoes another
Created by: obsessi
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