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Skull Import

Imported

QuestionAnswer
rests on the superior aspect of the vertebral column the skull
number of bones in the skull 22
number of cranial bones 8
number of facial bones 14
name the 2 groups of cranial bones *calvaria *floor
name the bones in the calvaria group of cranial bones *frontal *occipital *right parietal *left parietal
name the bones in the floor group of cranial bones *ethmoid *sphenoid *right temporal *left temporal
the basic functions of skull anatomy *protective housing for the brain *provide structure, shape, and support for the face *form a protective housing for the upper ends of the respiratory tracts *form the orbital sockets for protection of the organs of sight
composed of two plates of compact tissue separated by an inner layer of spongy tissue bones of the cranial vault
inner layer of spongy tissue that separates the two plates of the cranial vault diploe
the thicker plate of the cranial vault the outer plate
fibrous joints that join the bones of the cranium and face sutures
name the 4 sutures of the skull *coronal *sagittal *squamosal *lambdoidal
suture found between the frontal and parietal bones coronal suture
located on the top of the head between the two parietal bones and just behind the coronal suture line sagittal suture
the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures bregma
sutures located between the temporal bones and the parietal bones squamosal sutures
located between the occipital bone and the parietal bones lambdoidal suture
the juction of the lambdoidal and sagittal sutures the lambda
position of IR for all skull projections EXCEPT lateral skull lengthwise
on the lateral aspect of the skull, the junction of the parietal bone, squamosal suture, and greater wing of the sphenoid the pterion
overlies the middle meningeal artery the pterion
located at the juction of the occipital bone, parietal bone, and mastoid portion of the temporal bone the asterion
the six areas of incomplete ossification in the newborn infant skull fontanels
name the six fontanels *anterior fontanel *posterior fontanel *2 sphenoidal fontanels *2 mastoid fontanels
these fontanels normally close in the first and third months after birth the posterior and sphenoidal fontanels
these fontanels close during the second year of life the anterior and mastoid fontanels
fracture located at the base of the skull basal
fracture of the floor of the orbit blowout
fracture to one side of a structure caused by trauma to the other side Contre-Coup
fracture causing a portion of the skull to be depressed into the cranial cavity depressed
bilateral horizontal fractures of the maxillae Le Fort
irregular or jagged fracture of the skull linear
fracture of the zygomatic arch and orbital floor or rim and dislocation of the frontozygomatic suture tripod
inflammation of one or more of the paranasal sinuses sinusitis
dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) TMJ Syndrome
the petrous pyramids project anteriorly and medially at this angle in a typically shaped head 47 degrees
the six areas of incomplete ossification in a newborn infant's skull fontanels
the posterior half of the base of the skull is formed by this bone occipital
the suture located between the occipital bone and the parietal bones lambdoidal
the location of the CR and center of the IR position for a lateral projection of the skull 2 inches above the EAM
Which method of demonstrating the mastoid process is particularly useful with children and adults who cannot be placed in the prone position? Arcelin Method
What is the CR angulation for the Townes method of demonstrating the occipital bone? 30 degrees caudad
What is the average angle difference between the OML and IOML? 7 degrees
What is the average angle difference between the OML and the glabellomeatal line? 8 degrees
Name the 3 regions of the cranial floor: *anterior cranial fossa *middle cranial fossa *posterior cranial fossa
extends from the anterior frontal bone to the lesser wings of the sphenoid and is associated mainly with the frontal lobes of the cerebrum anterior cranial fossa
accommodates the temporal lobes and associated neurovascular structures and extends from the lesser wings of the sphenoid bone to the apices of the petrous portions of the temporal bones the middle cranial fossa
the deep depression posterior to the petrous ridges which protects the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata posterior cranial fossa
What structures are shown in a Towne's Method projection? *petrous pyramids *foramen magnum *occipital bone *parietal bone
For a Towne Method projection, what position should the hypersthenic or obese patient be examined in? the seated-upright position
the vertical portion of the frontal bone which forms the forehead and the anterior part of the vault frontal squama
the portion of the frontal bone that forms the orbital plates, part of the nasal cavity, and the greater part of the anterior cranial fossa horizontal portion
name the 2 portions of the frontal bone: *vertical portion *horizontal portion
a rounded elevation located on each side of the midsagittal plane of the superior portion of the squama frontal eminence
an opening in the center of the supraorbital margin for nerves and blood vessels supraorbital foramen
the smooth elevation between the superciliary arches the glabella
the midpoint of the frontonasal suture the nasion
a small, cube-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal plate, a vertical plate, and two light, spongy lateral masses called labyrinths ethmoid bone
situated between the orbits and forms part of the anterior cranial fossa, the nasal cavity and orbital walls, and the bony nasal septum the ethmoid bone
the horizontal portion of the ethmoid bone that is received into the ethmoidal notch of the frontal bone cribriform plate
the vertical portion of the ethmoid bone that forms the superior portion of the bony septum of the nose perpendicular plate
these are contained in the labyrinths and are divided into 3 groups on each side the ethmoidal sinuses, or air cells
Name the 3 groups of the ethmoidal sinuses, or air cells: *anterior *middle *posterior ethmoidal air cells
these 2 thin, scroll-shaped processes project inferiorly from each medial wall of the labyrinth the superior and middle nasal conchae
articulates with the frontal and sphenoid bone of the cranium the ethmoid bone
In radiography, the width of the head should be measured at this point because it is the widest point of the head: the parietal eminence
articulate with the frontal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid and its opposite bone of the cranium the parietal bones
this bone consists of a body; two lesser wings and two greater wings, which project laterally from the sides of the body; and two pterygoid processes the sphenoid bone
a deep depression on the superior surface of the sphenoid bone which contains a gland called the pituitary gland the sella turcica
lies in the midsagittal plane of the cranium at a point 3/4 inch anterior to and 3/4 inch superior to the level of the EAM the sella turcica
these foramina are situated in the greater wings of the sphenoid bone and because they transmit nerves and blood vessels, they are subject to radiologic investigation for detection of erosive lesions of neurogenic or vascular origin the foramina rotundum, ovale, and spinosum
this bone articulates with each of the other seven bones of the cranium the sphenoid bone
this bone is situated at the posteroinferior part of the cranium and forms the posterior half of the base of the cranium and the greater part of the posterior cranial fossa the occipital bone
Name the 4 parts of the occipital bone: *the squama *two occipital condyles *the basilar portion
a large aperture on the occipital bone through which the inferior portion of the medulla oblongata passes as it exits the cranial cavity and joins the spinal cord the foramen magnum
a prominent process on the external surface of the squama of the occipital bone, midway between its summit and the foramen magnum the external occipital protuberance, or inion
the only bony articulations between the skull and the neck the occipitoatlantal joints
found at the anterior ends of the condyles of the occipital bone and transmit the hypoglossal nerves the hypoglossal canals
found at the posterior ends of the condyles of the occipital bone and transmit the emissary veins the condylar canals
an important large opening in the skull that allows blood to drain from the brain via the internal jugular vein, and lets three cranial nerves pass through it the jugular foramen
this bone articulates with the two parietals, the two temporals and the sphenoid of the cranium, and the first cervical vertebra the occipital bone
each temporal bone contains: *squamous portion *tympanic portion *styloid process *zygomatic process *petromastoid portion
portion of the temporal bone that contains the organs of hearing and balance petromastoid portion
the thin upper portion of the temporal bone squamous portion
receives the condyle of the mandible to form the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) mandibular fossa
this portion forms the anterior wall, inferior wall, and part of the posterior walls of the EAM the tympanic portion
approximately 1/2 inch in length and projects medially, anteriorly, and slightly superiorly the EAM
a slender, pointed bone of variable length that projects inferiorly, anteriorly, and slightly medially from the inferior portion of the tympanic part of the temporal bone the styloid process
located in the mastoid portion of the temporal bone, it varies considerably in size, and is larger in males than in females the mastoid process
the thickest, densest bone in the cranium the petrous portion or petrous pyramid
this part of the temporal bone contains the organs of hearing and balance the petrous portion or petrous pyramid
located at the center of the posterior aspect of the petrous portion and transmits the vestibulocochlear and facial nerves internal acoustic meatus (IAM)
the upper border of the petrous portion petrous ridge
Where does the top of the petrous ridge lie? approximately at the level of an external radiography landmark called the top of ear attachment (TEA)
this bone articulates with the parietal, occipital, and sphenoid bones of the cranium the temporal bone
this portion of the temporal bone articulates with the superior border of the parietal bone and the posterior border of the occipital bone the mastoid portion
situated at the upper anterior part of the mastoid process, it is the first of the mastoid air cells to develop the mastoid antrum
the sutures of the skull allow for no movement and are classified as: fibrous joints of the suture type
the TMJ articulation is classified as: a synovial joint of both the hinge and gliding type
the point at which the rounded condyle of the mandible articulates with the mandibular fossa TMJ articulation
joint that joins the base of the skull with the atlas of the cervical spine the atlanto-occipital joint
the atlanto-occipital joint is classified as: a synovial ellipsoidal joint
How many joints are in the skull? 7
a typically shaped head is termed this: mesocephalic
a skull that is short from front to back, broad from side to side, and shallow from vertex to base is termed this: brachycephalic
In a brachycephalic skull, the petrous pyramids lie at what angle with the midsagittal plane? 54 degrees
a skull that is long from front to back, narrow from side to side, and deep from vertex to base is termed this: dolichocephalic
In a dolichocephalic skull, the petrous pyramids lie at what angle with the midsagittal plane? 40 degrees
Whether the radiographer elects to perform the exam with the patient in the recumbent or upright position depends on these 4 variables: *the equipment available *the age & condition of the patient *radiographer and or radiologist preference *whether upright images would increase diagnostic value (ex: showing air-fluid levels in paranasal sinuses)
The majority of repeat examinations is due to this: uncomfortable body position resulting in rotation or other motion
Who should receive radiation shielding of the thyroid and thymus glands and the gonads during an x-ray of the skull? infants and children
What is the most effective way to protect the patient from unnecessary radiation during an x-ray of the skull? restricting the radiation beam by using proper collimation
List 5 common positioning errors of the skull: *Rotation *Tilt *Excessive Flexion *Excessive Extension *Incorrect central ray
For a lateral projection of the skull, which size IR should be used, and how should it be placed in the IR holder? 24 x 30 cm; lengthwise
For a lateral skull projection, how should the midsagittal plane be positioned with reference to the plane of the IR? Parallel
For a lateral skull projection, how should the interpupillary line be positioned with reference to the plane of the IR? Perpendicular
For a lateral projection of the skull, which positioning line of the head should be parallel with the plane of the IR? the IOML
True or False: For cross-table lateral projections with the patient supine, a vertically oriented grid IR should be placed against the side of interest. True
For PA and PA axial projections of the skull, how should the midsagittal plane be positioned with reference to the plane of the IR? Perpendicular
For PA and PA axial projections of the skull, how should the OML be positioned with reference to the plane of the IR? Perpendicular
For PA and PA axial projections of the skull, which parts of the patient's facial area should be in contact with the table or vertical grid device? Forehead and nose
For the PA projection with a perpendicular central ray, list 5 structures shown: *the orbits filled by the margins of the petrous pyramids *the posterior ethmoidal air cells *crista galli *frontal bone *frontal sinuses
For AP and AP axial projections, how should the midsagittal plane be positioned with reference to the plane of the IR? Perpendicular
For AP and AP axial projections, how should the OML be positioned with reference to the plane of the IR? Perpendicular
For the AP projection of the skull, how should the central ray be directed? Perpendicularly
For the AP axial projection of the skull, how should the central ray be directed? 15 degrees cephalic
When performing either the AP or AP axial projection for general surveys of the skull, where on the skull should the central ray be directed? the nasion
What image characteristic indicates that a general survey image of the skull is an AP projection instead of a PA projection? the orbits are considerably magnified
For an AP axial Towne Method projection, to what level of the patient should the upper boarder of the IR be aligned? Highest point of the vertex (about 2.5 inches superior to the glabella)
Created by: foster1317