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Rad Protection 1

Radiation protection

QuestionAnswer
1. What types of waves are apart of the electromagnetic spectrum? visible light, microwaves, radio, x-ray, and gamma. pg 225
2. Define wavelength The distance between two consecutive wave crests. pg 225
3. What is frequency? The number of wave cycles per second. pg 225
4. What is frequency measured in? hertz, equal to 1 cycle per second pg 225
5. What makes ionizing radiation dangerous? It has the energetic potential to break apart electrically neutral atoms, which results in the release of -/+ ions, pg 226
6. IS cancer a late effect or early effect of radiation exposure? Late. pg 226
7. What is background radiation? Radiation we are exposed to in the food we eat or the ground we live on or found naturally in the air we breathe and in our bodies. pg 226
8. What is attenuation? The gradual decrease in exposure rate as ionizing radiation passes through tissue, pg 227
9. Which shell loses an electron during the photoelectric effect? The inner shell, so an outside electron moves down into its place to complete the octet. pg 228
10. Which shell loses an electron during Compton scatter? Outer shell, this electron released is called a recoil electron. pg 228
11. Does scatter effect the image or personnel? Yes, scatter leaving the patient is responsible for image fog and can give pose a hazard to personnel. pg 229
12. What is a linear dose response? The response to exposure is directly related to the dose received. Dose ^ Biologic damage ^ pg 230
13. What is threshold? The term that refers to dose below a certain value in which no harmful effects are likely; or the point at which the dose begins. pg 230
14. Low LET =increase biologic effect? False, Low LET will decrease biologic effects as they are directly related. pg 230
15. Is there a safe dose of radiation? In a non-threshold curve, no. But in threshold there can be a safe amount of radiation which could =0. pg 231
16. What is a non-stochastic effect? They are predictable and are a response to a non-linear (sigmoid) threshold curve. pg 231
17. What is a deterministic effect? Characterized by nonlinear dose response and associated with safe threshold dose. pg 232
18. What is a stochastic effect? The foremost late effects that are expected to occur. Ex: cancer, gentic effects, somatic effects. pg 232
19. What cells are most radiosensitive? Lymphocytes are the most radio-sensitive cells. In general the more specialized a cell the less radio-sensitive. pg 233
20. Calculate Effective dose. EfD= radiation weighting factor (Wr) x tissue weighting factor (Wt) x absorbed dose (D) pg 233
21. The rate at which radiation deposits energy as it passes through tissue. LET, linear energy transfer. pg 234
22. Most interaction of scatter radiation in the body occur with water? True, 65-80% of the body is water, so ionizing radiation involves (indirect) radiolysis more often than direct interaction with DNA. pg 234
23. What is the least radio-sensitive stage of the cell cycle? DNA replication in mitosis. pg 235.
24. Does oxygen effect radio-sensitivity? Yes, the more oxygen a tissue contains the more radio-sensitive. pg 236
25. What is the genetically significant dose? The average gonadal dose to the population of childbearing age and is estimated to be 20mrem. pg 239
Created by: maesparza