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400

International Energy

QuestionAnswer
What is a fossil fuel? Were formed by natural processes such as decomposition(rotting) of buried dead organisms,such as ferns and trees. Take millions of years.
Seismic Explosions to measusre difference in the earth's crust(possible source of oil/gas)
Wild cat drilling Exploratory drilling on a hunch
Development wells Prove the reserves in a field to get finacing for production
Primary Production The oil well's natural pressure because "lifting cost" is cheaper
Secondary production Re-injecting associated gas or water to get greater production from an oil well
Natural Gas Generally appears in the gaseous state with oil, but it may appear alone in gas fields
Tertiary Recovery (EOR) Steam injection, chemical flooding, or fracturing walls between the domes in a wall (like a honeycomb)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) Established in 1960 to fight the "seven sisters" international oil companies (price, revenues, and control of the rate of depletion). Members of cartel agreed to fixed quotas.60% of oil traded internationally comes from OPEC countries.
Who are the major oil producers? OPEC countries: Saudi Arabia, Iran, UAE, Nigeria, Libya. Non-OPEC countries: USA, Russsia, Mexico, China
Where are the crude oil reserves? Main OPEC reserves: Saudi Arabia, Iraq, UAE, Kuwait, Iran, Venezuela. Non-OPEC reserves: Russia, Mexico, China, USA
Why Should Countries Consider Other Forms of Energy? Access to energy, global warming due to greenhouse gases, fewer oil spills, cheaper forms of energy in the future, and renewable sources
Hydroelectic Power Harnesses energy from moving or falling water, supplies 19% of world's energy. DOes not produce carbon dioxide
Thermal Power Can harness energy from a change in temperature. Many types: solar, geo thermal power (from heat in the ground). Thermal (coal) is Australia'a major source of electricity.
Nuclear Power Provides approximately 17% of world's energy. Uranium 238 most abundant. Induced fission neutron bumps into U235; it is absorbed then spontaneous splitting. Energy released in the form of heat and gamma radiation
Solar Power (fuel cells) Photovoltaic cells made up of semiconductors, namely silicon, often assembled as solar panels. Essentially sun knocks electrons loose, then they are allowed to flow in a single direction to cause a current.
Wind Power Air a FLUID. Usually collected by windmills. Generator turns rotational energy into electricity. Wind caused by the Sun.
Tidal Power Works like a hydro-electric scheme but the dam is Much bigger. Happens very commonly in estuaries( place where river meets the ocean).
What is the major drawback of Tidal Power? Can only produce energy when water flowing back and forth.
What is the drawback of Wind Power? People complain about the sound, the vibrations, and the dead birds and bats that hit the windmill blades.
BioPower Converting biomass (plants, algae, garbage, etc.) into energy. Biomass is degraded and by-product such as methane are burned to produce heat, which is being tested in air planes.
Nuclear Option Nuclear has 1/20th of the greenhouse gases of gas-fired plants. Nuclear power is cost competitive with other forms of electricity generation over the long-term, except where there is direct access to low-cost fossil fuels.
Created by: rafi.sultani