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MC Pharm II Exam 4


levodopa (L-Dopa) dopaminergic Agents
levodopa-carbidopa (Sinemet) dopaminergic Agents
amantadine HCL (Symmetrel) dopamine agonist
bromcriptine mesylate (Parlodel) dopamine agonist
benztropine (Cogentin) anticholinergic
trihexphenidyl (Artane) anticholinergic
diphenhydramine hcl (Benadryl) anticholinergic & cannabinoids
ethopropazine (Parsidol) anticholinergic
procyclidine (Kemadrin) anticholinergic
belladonaa alkaloids anticholinergic
atropine anticholinergic
scopolamine anticholinergic
donepezil hcl (Aricept) AchE Inhibitors
tacrine (Cognex) AchE Inhibitors
rivastigmine tartrate (Exelon) AchE Inhibitors
memantine (Namenda) glutamergic inhibitors
interferon beta 1 & 1a (Avonex, Rebif, Betaseron) Immune modulating or BMR
glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) Immune modulating or BMR
azathioprine (Imuran) Immune modulating or BMR
cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) immunosuppressant
mitoxantrone (Novantrone) immunosuppressant
drugs for chronic progressive MS cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), mitoxantrone (Novantrone), & adrenocorticotriphic hormone (ACTH)
drugs for remission-exacerbation MS interferon beta 1 & 1a (Avonex, Rebif, Betaseron), glatiramer acetate (Copaxone), & azathioprine (Imuran)
side effects for chronic progressive MS drugs N/V, GI discomfort, allergic reactions, alopecia, blue-green tint to urine, & irreversible cardiac damage, possible teratogenic
side effects of remission-exacerbation MS drugs flu like, discomfort at injection site, & liver toxicity
acute attack drugs for MS glucocorticoid (Prednisone) & adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
which of the chronic progressive MS drugs is most toxic? mitoxantrone (Novantrone)
Which drug do you need to give at a 14 day with tapering? ACTH
Which drug do you watch the WBC & only give 5 days? cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
What is a synthetic protein that stimulates proteins that make up the myelin sheath to decrease attacks & lesions? glatiramer acetate (Copaxone)
what reduces spasticity & improves muscle tone & is given IM every other day? interferon beta 1 & 1a (Avonex, Rebif, Betaseron)
drugs that block NMDA receptors & may slow ca accumulation to prevent further damage. allowing more glutamate to be available for learning & memory? memantine (Namenda)
overdose s&s for glutamergic inhibitors severe n/v, sweating, salivation, hypotesnion, bradycardia, increased muscle weakness & convulsions
side effects of AchE Inhibitor drugs V/D, dark urine, insomnia, H/A, fatigue, urinary incontinence, blurred vision, arthralgia
what improves memory? AchE Inhibitors
How long does it take before parkinsons is controlled with medicaitons? weeks to 2-4 months
Drugs that cause discolored urine when exposed to air? anticholinergics for parkinsons
what drugs do you not abruptly discontinue? anticholinergics for parkinsons
anticholinergics are CI with what? glaucoma & myesthenia gravis
what class for parkinsons reduces the rigidity & some of the tremors but not the bradykinesia? anticholinergics
side effects of Parlodel? n, orthostatic hypotension, palpitations, chest pain, edema, nightmares, delusions, confusion
What drug is the dose decreased if taken with Levedopa? bromocriptine mesylate (Parlodel)
which drug works directly on the dopamine receoptors? bromocriptine mesylate (Parlodel)
Which dopamine drug is also an antiviral? amantadine hcl (Symmetrel)
which drug causes the release of neuronal sites & increase accumulation in peripheral & centrally. less effective than levedopa but fewer side effects? amantadine hcl (Symmetrel)
onset of this drug is 48 hrs. amantadine hcl (Symmetrel)
side effects include for amantadine hcl (Symmetrel) orthostatic hypotension, confusion, urinary retention, & c
which drug acts by decreasing peripheral breakdown ofj levodopa to decrease side effects while increasing the amount of levodopa to blood? levodopa-carbidopa (Sinemet)
Which dopamine drug is a single daily dose? levodopa-carbidopa (Sinemet)
which drug is most effective in treating parkinson & acts by inhibiting enzymes that destroy it in the body or convert by dopadecarboxydase to dopamine? levodopa (L-Dopa)
therapeutic effect for this durg takes 2-3 weeks while the full effect takes 2-4 months levodopa (L-Dopa)
CI for glaucoma pts levodopa (L-Dopa)
side effects for levodopa (L-Dopa) GI disress, A/N/V, confusion, nervousness, dyskinesia, choreiform movements, euphoria, agitation, orthostatic hypotension, palpitation, tachycardia, cardiac dysrhythmias, HTN, insomnia, tolerance, & anticholinergics
choreiform movements twisting wormlike
which drug should you monitor intraocular pressure, hepatic, renal, & cardio status levodopa (L-Dopa)
given in a titrate dose levodopa (L-Dopa)
works by blocking action potential of electrical activity or by interfering with synaptic transmission of electrical impulses. AEDs
Classes of AEDs hydantoins, barbiturates, benzodizepines, succinimides, misc antiepileptics
phenytoin (Dilantin) hydantoins
phenobarbital (Luminal) barbiturates
primidone (Mysoline) barbiturates
clonzepam (Klonopin) benzodizepines
clorazepate (Tranxene) benzodizepines
midazolam (Versed) benzodizepines
ethosuximide (Zarontin) succinimides
carbamazepine (Tegretol) misc antiepileptics
valproic acid (Depakote, Depakene) misc antiepileptics
Used to treat tonic clonic & partial seizures phenytoin (Dilantin)
used to treat status epilepticus phenobarbital (Luminal), primidone (Mysoline), diazepam (Valium), & midazolam (Versed)
DOC for status epileptics diazepam (Valium)
DOC for absence seizures ethosuximide (Zarontin)
used to treat benign tremors & seizures primidone (Mysoline)
promotes Na movement into neurons in the motor cortex increasing threshhold & preventing spread of electrical impulses hydantoins
stimulates GABA receptors & inhibits the transmission & neuronal firing increasing the threshold & increase movement of Cl into cells barbiturates
prevent the spread of electrical seizure activity by stimulating GABA benzodizepines
decrease respnse to repeative stimuli in the basal ganglia & cortex succinimides
similar to dilantin carbamazepine (Tegretol)
side effects of phenytoin (Dilantin) CNS depression, slurred speech, irritability, twitch, drowsy, agranulocytosis, anemai, hypoprothrombinemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, N/V/D/C, wt gain, red brown urin, gingival hyperplasia, teratogenic
side effects of bariturates CNS depression, respiratory depression, drowsy, & idiosyncratic with kids & elderly
side effects of benzodiazepines CNS depression, respiratory depression, sedation
side effects of succinimides A/N/V/D/C, abd pain, wt loss, CNS depression, difficult concentration, mental slowness, drowsiness, ataxia, HA, lethargy, euphoria, photosensitivity, insomnia, bloody dyscrasias, & bone marrow suppression
side effects of tegretol fatal blood dyscrasias, n/v, drowsy, decreased coordination, confusion, speech disturbances, abnormal involuntary movements, peripheral neuritis, photosensitivity
side effects of valproic acid thrombocytopenia, N/V, sedation, & increased liver enzymes
cyclobenzaprine HCL (Flexeril) centrally acting muscle relaxants
baclofen (Lioresal) centrally acting muscle relaxants
chlorzoxazone (Paraflex, Parafon Forte) centrally acting muscle relaxants
diazepam (Valium) centrally acting muscle relaxants & benzodizepines & Anxiolytics
carisoprodol (Soma) centrally acting muscle relaxants
meethocarbamol (Robaxin) centrally acting muscle relaxants
orphenadrine citrate (Norflex, Flexon) centrally acting muscle relaxants
dantrolene sodium (Dantrium) peripherally or direct acting muscle relaxants
botulinum toxin type A (Botox, Dysport) newer direct-acting muscle relaxant
botulinum toxin type B (Myobloc) newer direct-acting muscle relaxant
meprobamate (Equanil, Miltown) Anxiolytics
side effects for centrally acting muscle relaxants n/v, tachycardia, dry mouth, rash, asthma attacki, blurred vision, sedation, drowsy, insomnia, hyptoension, diplopia
side effects for peripherally or direct acting muscle relaxants A/N/V/D, sweating, photosensitivity, urinary retention, liver toxicity, muscle weakness, drowsy, dizzy, insomnia, tachycardia, hypotension
drugs that block interneuronal activity to the brain & spinal cord centrally acting muscle relaxants
works directly on the muscle for relaxation especially spastic. interferes with Ca ions release. peripherally acting muscle relaxants
causes weakness or paralysis of involved muscles due to blocking hte release of acetylcholine from the nerve terminals newer direct-acting muscle relaxants
inhibits afferent spinal synaptics pathways & directly suppresses muscle function at the NMJ or synapse diazepam (Valium)
these drugs cause lowered blood sugar levels so DM pts should monitor levels closely centrally acting muscle relaxants
do not discontinue this drug abruptly centrally acting muscle relaxants
important to monitor for hepatotoxicity in what drug? dantrolene sodium (Dantrium)
also used to treat malignant hyperthermia dantrolene sodium (Dantrium)
avoid extravastion of the this drug if given IV dantrolene sodium (Dantrium)
therapeutic effect takes about 1 wk if taken PO dantrolene sodium (Dantrium)
treats dystonias & migraines newer direct-acting muscle relaxants
repeated injections every 3-6 month is required for what meds & also can result in the loss of effectiveness newer direct-acting muscle relaxants
what drug should you not mix or dilute. give IV slowly & IM deep diazepam (Valium)
used topically to decrease chemical transmission to sensory allowing relaxation of the muslces cayenne
what is the active ingredient in cayenne? capsaicin
important thing to remember when applying cayenne placed only on intact skin
dronabinol (Marinol) cannabinoids
trimethobenzamide (Tigan) cannabinoids
benzquinamide HCL (Emete-Con) cannabinoids
hydroxyzine HCL (Vistaril, Atarax) cannabinoids
scopolamine transdermal (Transderm Scop) cannabinoids
dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) cannabinoids
meclizine (Antivert) cannabinoids
ondansetron (Zofran) selective serotonin receptor antagonists
metoclopramide (Reglan) GI Stimulants
cisapride (Propulsid) GI Stimulants
sibutramine (Meridia) anorexiants
pancrelipase (Pancrease, Cotazym, Ilozyme, & others) digestive enzymes
pancreatin (Pancrezyme, Creon, & others) digestive enzymes
Ipecac emetics
contains active ingredient found in marijunana causing euphoria, antiemetic, & relaxation response dronabinol (Marinol)
depresses the CRT zone at the medulla to treat N/V trimethobenzamide (Tigan)
depresses the CRT zone & prevents & treats N/V benzquinamide HCL (Emete-Con)
unknown action. anticholinergic. helps with anxiety, pruritus with allergy, pre/post op sedation, DTs, adjuncts to narcotics, N/V hydroxyzine HCL (Vistaril, Atarax)
inhibits effects in the vestibular area of the CNS & the V center scopolamine transdermal (Transderm Scop)
used for motion sickness dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)
treats vertigo, Meneires disease, & motion sickness meclizine (Antivert)
blocks the receptors that are stimulated by serotonin in the CTZ to prevent N/V ondanestron (Zofran)
blocks dopamine receptors in the CRT zone metoclopramide (Reglan)
inhibits prostaglandin synthesis to help chemotherapy induced v corticosteroids
contains enzymes lipase, protease, & amylase replaceing it d/t decrease in pancreas & help complete the final stages of digestion digestive enzymes
side effects for dronabinol (Marinol) euphoria, confusion, ataxia, increased sensory awareness, decreased motor coordination, paranoia, hunger (cheo appetite stimulant), hungover appearance
side effects for trimethobenzamide (Tigan) sedation, H/A, loose stools, dizziness, muscle cramps, blurred vision, seziures, severe v, depression, tremors, weakness, sore throat, jaundice
side effects benzquinamide HCL (Emete-Con) sedation, agitation, insomnia, H/A, dry mouth, increased sweating, increased salivation, blurred vision, hiccups, EPS, hypo/HTN, dysrhythmias
side effects of hydroxyzine HCL (Vistaril, Atatrax) drowsiness, dry mouth
side effects for scopolamine transdermal (Transderm scop) c, dry skin, dry mucous membranes, blurred vision, drowsiness, insomnia , difficulty urinating, photophobia, dysphagia, glaucoma, & IIOP
side effects for ondansetron (Zofran) HTN, anxiety drowsiness, abd pain, D, xerostomia
side effects for Reglan loose stools, dizzy, orthostatic hypotension, drowsy, abd pain, N/V, anorexia, wt. loss, difficulty urinating & breathing, chest pain, paresthesia, hallucinations, visual disturbances, nightmares, agranulocytosis, EPS
side effects of cisapride (Propulsid) D/N/V, stomach distress
side effects of anorexiants H/A, insomnia, dry mouth, HTN, tachycardia
side effects of digestive enzymes N/D, abd cramping, avoid skin contact d/t irritation, caution with asthma d/t ability to cause asthma attack if accidentally inhaled
what medication is it important not to crush, chew, or change brands? digestive enzymes
CI for pork allergy digestive enzymes
What drug is not used in children with viral illness d/t risk of Reye syndrome? trimethobenzamide (Tigan)
what drug do you need to check BP prior to administration & after? trimethobenzamide (Tigan)
used cautiously with DHD, electrolyte imbalances, high fever, gastroenteritis, or encephalitis trimethobenzamide (Tigan)
what drug is given 15 mins prior to emergence of anesthesia benzquinamide HCL (Emete-Con)
patch placed on mastoid process that can cause one sided pupillary dilation. placed 4-12hrs prior to & can be left on for 3 days. scopolamine transdermal (Transderm Scop)
given 30 mins prior to chemo IV. 2 hrs prior to radiation PO ondansetron (Zofran)
avoid using this medication with pt who have epilepsy, pheochromocytoma, GI increased motility is hazardous or already increased. GI stimulants
administered 30 mins before meals & at HS GI stimulants
pt must have a BMI >30 or 27 with risk factors (DM , HTN) sibutramine (Meridia)
must be given a 2 week washout b/w MAOIs Meridia
fluoxetine (Prozac) & sertaline (Zoloft) can be used like Meridia
older preps of anorexiants caused what types of problems? cardiac & addictive b/c of amphetamines, fen-phen, or ephedra alkaloids
inhibits or blocks the effect of Ach to balance it with dopamine. inhibits the overactivity of the brain & muscle tremors/rigidity. benztropine (Cogentin)
Created by: midnight1854



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