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Pharmacology WCU

side effects, dose range, pt teaching, nurse asmt, MOA, classification

Generic nameclassMOAserious & specific S/Ept teachingNurse processRange
psyllium (Matamucil) Laxative (bulk forming) Increase size of fecal mass Insufficient water can lead to obstruction of esophagus or intestine Mix with 8 Oz of Water, milk, or juice. followed by 8 Oz of liquid -Emphesize the need for 8oz of liquid. Monitor I&O, bowel fxn 1-2 tsp with 8Oz daily prn
methylcellulos (Citrucel) Laxative (bulk forming) Increase size of fecal mass Insufficient water can lead to obstruction of esophagus or intestine Mix with 8 Oz of Water, milk, or juice. followed by 8 Oz of liquid -Emphesize the need for 8oz of liquid. 1 tbsp tid with 8-10oz of water
docusate (Colace) Laxative (stool-softner/surfactant) make more water and fat to be absorbed into the stool abdominal cramping, diarrhea drink clear fluid at least 2-3L/day, exercise, eat high fiber foods. monitor for diarrhea and dehydration PO 50-500mg/day
bisacodyl (Correctol, dulcolax) Laxative (stimulant) promote peristalsis by irritating the bowel mucosa fluid and electrolyte loss -expect anal or rectal burning. -not for long term use. monitor signs of dehydration, rectal bleeding, discharge of mucous or pus, 10-15mg/day prn
diphenoxylate w/ atropine (Limotil) Antidiarrheal/ Anticholinnergic Slows peristalsis, allowing time for additional water reabsorption from colon and more solid stool. -Dizziness, constipation, Angle glaucoma, dry mouth, paralytic ileus w/ toxic megacolon Avoid activiteis that require alertness. sit if light-headed, change positions gradually.chew gum. Void every 4 hrs. Drink clear liquid Monitor for anticholinergic affects, light headedness when ambulating, urinary elimination, -recommend lowest dose 1-2 tab tid-qid
loperamide (Imodium) Antidiarrheal Decreases the volume of ileostomy drainage. constipation, dry mouth Avoid activiteis that require alertness. sit if light-headed, change positions gradually.chew gum. Void every 4 hrs. Drink clear liquid 4 mg initially, then 2 mg after each loose stool. don't exceed 16mg/day
camphorated tincture of opium (Paregoric) Antidiarrheal constipation 5-10ml every 2hr qid prn
bismuth salts (Pepto-Bismol) Antidiarrheal constipation 30ml prn
diphenhydremine (Benadryl Antiemetic/ Antihistamine -anorexia, dry mouth chew gum for dry mouth monitor ambulating, urinary retention, bowel movement, anticholinergic affects 25-50mg tid-qid
dexamethasone (Decadron) Antiemetic/ Antiasthma /corticosteroid PEPTIC ULCERATION, THROMBOEMBOLISM, Avoid consumption of grapefruit juice, Administer with meals, report severe abdominal pain or tarry stools occur Monitor: I&O, electrolytes and signs of dehydration. Asses: signs of adrenal insufficiency, LOC, cohrn's disease, ulcerative colitis 0.25-4mg bid-qid
Prochlorperazine (Compazine) Antiemetic/ Antipsychotic NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME, AGRANULOCYTOSIS
ondansetron (Zofran) Antiemetic Blocks the effects of serotonin at 5-HT3–receptor sites TORSADE DE POINTES Report irregular heart beat or involuntary movement of eyes, face, or limbs occur. Monitor ECG
metformin (Glucophage) Antidiabetic (Oral Hyproglycemic) Suppresses gluconeogenesis, increase muscles' glucose uptake and use. LACTIC ACIDOSIS, decreased vitamin B12 and folic acid. discontinue med if signs of lactic acidosis occurs. Lactic acidosis can be treated by hemodialysis. provide supplements as needed, Assess serum electrolytes, ketones, glucose PO 500mg
Insulin lisparo (Humalog) Antidiabetic (rapid acting) Onset-15 min Promote glucose uptake, convert glucose to glycogen; amino acid to protein, fatty acid to tryglycerides. moves K+ into cell along with glucose. HYPOGLYCEMIA, ALLERGIC REACTIONS INCLUDING ANAPHYLAXIS. check blood glucose regularly, know signs of hypoglycemia, admin. 15g of carbohydrate (4oz of juice, 8oz of milk, glucose tablet) if hypoglycemic. Assess signs of hypoglycemia, monitor blood glucose levels, check with another nurse for dosage 0.2-0.6 units/kg/day, duration: 3-4hrs
Insulin glargine (Lantus) Antidiabetic (Long acting) onset-1hrs Promote glucose uptake, convert glucose to glycogen; amino acid to protein, fatty acid to tryglycerides. moves K+ into cell along with glucose. HYPOGLYCEMIA, ALLERGIC REACTIONS INCLUDING ANAPHYLAXIS. check blood glucose regularly, know signs of hypoglycemia, admin. 15g of carbohydrate (4oz of juice, 8oz of milk, glucose tablet) if hypoglycemic. Assess signs of hypoglycemia, monitor blood glucose levels, check with another nurse for dosage 10units once daily, duration: 24hrs
Regular insulin (Humulin R) Antidiabetic (short acting) onset 30min Promote glucose uptake, convert glucose to glycogen; amino acid to protein, fatty acid to tryglycerides. moves K+ into cell along with glucose. HYPOGLYCEMIA, ALLERGIC REACTIONS INCLUDING ANAPHYLAXIS. check blood glucose regularly, know signs of hypoglycemia, admin. 15g of carbohydrate (4oz of juice, 8oz of milk, glucose tablet) if hypoglycemic. Assess signs of hypoglycemia, monitor blood glucose levels, check with another nurse for dosage IV- 0.1unit/hr subq-0.5–1 unit/kg/day
NPH Insulin (Humulin N) Antidiabetic (intermediate acting) onset-1-2hrs Promote glucose uptake, convert glucose to glycogen; amino acid to protein, fatty acid to tryglycerides. moves K+ into cell along with glucose. HYPOGLYCEMIA, ALLERGIC REACTIONS INCLUDING ANAPHYLAXIS. check blood glucose regularly, know signs of hypoglycemia, admin. 15g of carbohydrate (4oz of juice, 8oz of milk, glucose tablet) if hypoglycemic. Assess signs of hypoglycemia, monitor blood glucose levels, check with another nurse for dosage 0.5–1 unit/kg/day duration: 18-24hrs
Kava kava Antianxiety/ sedative/hypnotic HEPATIC TOXICITY avoid: alcohol, CNS depressants, alert activities. report signs of liver dysfxn Assess muscle spasm, perform liver fxn test 100mg tid
Garlic lipid lowering agent ↓ hemoglobin production and lysis of RBCs, platelet dysfunction, prolonged bleeding time. advise pt there is potential for bleeding. need to stop using garlic 2 weeks prior to surgery.
Accutane antiacne PREGNANCY CATAGORY X, STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME, TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS
thalidomide Immunosuppressant PREGNANCY CATEGORY X, SEVER BIRTH DEFECTS
misoprostol (cytotec) prostaglandins
omeprazole (Prilosec) Proton Pump Inhibitor Decrease gastric acid secretion by binding irreversibly to an enzyme Gastric cancer (for long term use) on an empty stomach in the morning -Give low dose to prevent bone loss -Monitor for bone loss via bone density scanning. 20-60mg once to twice/day
ranitidine (Zantac) H2-receprtor antagonist Decreased gastric acid secretion by blocking H2 receptors rare: sever reduction of RBC, WBC, platelets. -AGRANULOCYTOSIS, APLASTIC ANEMIA, ARRHYTHMIAS Do not take Antacid together -P.C. check liver and renal fxn monitor CBC -100-150mg bid or -300mg at bed time
aluminum hydroxide (AlternalGEL) Antacid neutralizes the stomach by raising pH levels -Constipation -Hypophosphotemia Administer at least 2 hrs before/after other drugs Monitor phosphorus and magnesium levels 600mg tid-qid
Created by: hbluy