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Chapt 17 CNS Drugs

The ability to increase the action of the neurotransmitter GABA Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Uses: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Uses: Panic disorders, Insomnia Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Uses: In seizures injectable form of diazepam (Valium) and Lorazepam (Ativan) are commonly used to stop seizures Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Uses: Long lasting drug such as phenytonin (Dilantin) are given to prevent reoccurrence of seizures Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Adverse effects: Drowsiness, ataxia (inability to coordinate muscle activity); impaired judgement; rebound insomnia; development of tolerance; gradual withdrawal Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Contraindications: Do not take during pregnancy, likely to cause fetal abnormalities Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Contraindications: Severe liver and kidney disorders Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Contraindications: Children who are hyperactive Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Patient information: Use relaxation method to decrease anxiety Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Patient information: Do not stop medication abruptly; do not drink alcohol or take CNS depressants while taking hypnotic or anxiolytics (sedatives) Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Patient information: Avoid caffeine; do not drive or operate heavy machinery Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Patient information: Elderly patients require lower dosage of diazepam to decrease ataxia and avoid oversedation Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Valium (diazepam) Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Ativan (lorazepam) Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Relatively newer antidepressants SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Considered the first-line drugs in treatment of patients with major depression SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Primarily block the effect of serotonin uptake SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Comparable efficacy to TCAs, however TCAs are more effective with severe depression SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Uses: Depression, geriatric depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, premenstrual dysphoric disorder SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Adverse effects: Relatively mild, shorter duration than TCA SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Adverse effects: Caridac toxicity and risk of death after overdose are less likely than w/TCA SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Common Adverse effects: headache, nausea, vomiting tremor, insomnia, dizziness, diarrhea SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to the drug, SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Contraindications: should not use concurrently w/ MAOIs or thioridazine (Mellaril) SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Contraindications: Should not use during pregnancy; should not use in children under 7 yrs SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Contraindicaitons: Use with caution in patients with hepatic or renal impairment, renal failure, lactation, cardia disease, diabetes mellitus SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Patient information: Report withdrawal symptoms (abd. pain, diarrhea, nausea, headache, sweating, insomnia) SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Patient information: Report if better, worst or no change SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Patient information: Weight changes, suicidal alert, take with food, careful while driving and operating heavy machinery, avoid alcohol, take in morning to minimize insomnia SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Zoloft (sertraline) SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Luvox (fluvoxamine) SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Prozac (fluoxetine) SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Three-ring (tricyclic) structure TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressant) Antidepressant agent
Raise the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressant) Antidepressant agent
Uses: More likely to relieve endogenous depression (a chemical disorder in the brain) TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressant) Antidepressant agent
Trofanil (imipramine) TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressant) Antidepressant agent
Pamelor (nortriptyline) TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressant) Antidepressant agent
Elavil (amitriptyline) TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressant) Antidepressant agent
Adverse Effects: Anticholinergic and alpa adrenergic blocking activities TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressant) Antidepressant agent
Adverse effect: Orthostatic hypotension TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressant) Antidepressant agent
Contraindications: Avoid during acute recovery period after a heart attack; avoid in pts w/severe renal or hepatic impairment TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressant) Antidepressant agent
Contraindications: MAOIs may precipitate hyperpyrexic crisis, tachycardia or seizures TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressant) Antidepressant agent
Patient info: do not stop abruptly, take at bedtime to promote normal sleep pattern TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressant) Antidepressant agent
Patient info: Effectiveness begins after 2 wks of use TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressant) Antidepressant agent
Block breakdown of norepinephrine and serotonin MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Second-third line antidepressants because of the numerous interactions w/prescriptions and OTC meds, as well as food and beverages MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Contraindications: Epilepsy, liver disease, serious cardiovascular disease MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Contraindications: Must follow strict diet; Avoid food with tyramine; Provide pts a list of food or do not eat list MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Nardil (pheneizine) MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Parnate (tranylcypromine) MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors) Antidepressant agent
Bipolar disorder; Lithium commonly used for treatment Lithium (Eskalith) Antipsychotic agent
Three types: Manic, Depressive, Mixed Antipsychotic agent
Does not produce sedation; Alters sodium transport; Used for prophylaxis and treatment Lithium (Eskalith) Antipsychotic agent
Interferes with nerve conduction Lithium (Eskalith) Antipsychotic agent
Contraindications: Renal disease, cardiovascular disease, severe dehydration, pregnancy, severe debilitation Lithium (Eskalith) Antipsychotic agent
Maybe extremely toxic, monitor levels monthly during maintenance and two or three times wkly during acute manic phase Lithium (Eskalith) Antipsychotic agent
Warning: Pts may have increase thirst and dehydration, lithium is a SALT - Adequate fluid intake is important Lithium (Eskalith) Antipsychotic agent
May be uses as sedative or hypnotic; Widely prescribe for anxiety Benzodiazepine Antianxiety agent
Created by: Ggoosey
 

 



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