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Resp 2.7

Basic ventilator function

Definition of positive pressure ventilator the machine creates a positive intrapulmonary pressure in which turns creates a pressure gradient between the pt's lungs and the atmosphere
Definition of negative pressure ventilator creates a negative extrathoracic pressure which creates a pressure gradient between the pt lung and the atmosphere
Pressure trigger the pt generates an insp effort that drops pressure in the system therefore triggers the machine into inspiration
Time trigger the machine begins inspiration as a result of pre determined time
Flow trigger the pt generates an insp effort that changes flow in the system therefore triggers the machine into inspiration
What are basic settings for flow trigger 1-3 lpm (the lower the # the easier it is for the pt to trigger the machine
Advantage of flow vs pressure trigger flow is more sensitve to pt effort
Volume trigger the trigger threshold corresponds with a volume of 0-3 ml. When a particular volume moves across the sensor the ventilator to is triggered into inspiration
What is the importance of the exhalation circuit functions to direct the flow of the gas the pt. Closes on inspiration. At end of insp, valve opens and allows pt to exhale passively.
Without a proper functionally exhalation valve, that machine will will not deliver a positive pressure breath
Time cycled inspiration ends when a set time has expired
Flow cycled inspiration ends when a minimum flow is met
pressure cycled inspiration ends when a pre set pressure is reached
volume cycled inspiration ends when a pre set volume is delivered
IE ratio prevents the ventilator from delivering breaths with an IE ratio of less than 1:1
Pressure limit sets a maximum insp pressure that can be delivered to the pt. (stops inspiration)
inflation/plateu at peak inspiration, holds the pressure or volume for a period of time (increase insp time)(increase IE ratio)
Pressure limiting relief valve (high pressure alarm) releases any pressure in the system by venting any volume remaining (ALLOWS VOLUME TO ESCAPE)
PEEP WORKS BY INCREASING FRC. on expiration, pressure is held at an elevated baseline above atmosphere
CPAP when used with ventilator, it is the same as PEEP except that the pt must be taking spontaneous breaths (used to treat sleep apnea when CPAP machine is used)
mode control that selects how the machine will deliver inspiration or create expiration (HOW WE DELIVER THE BREATH)
Sensitivity (trigger) determine ease with which pt can begin inspiration (like IPPB)
inverse IE ratio insp time is set to be greater than exp time whcih reverses the normal
PEEP positive pressure is held at an elevated baseline at the end of expiration. Used to aid in elevating the pt's PAO2 and does not contribute to remvoing PaCO2
CPAP purely spontaneous mode, cannot be used for pts' with apneic. Used to elevate the pt's PaO2 and does not contribute to removing PaCO2
PIP/MIP pressure it takes to ventilate the lung, aka peak airway pressure
IMV mode of ventilation that allows pt to spontaneously ventilate and receive assitance from the ventilator ALLOWS PT TO TAKE OWN BREATH BUT ALSO HAVE HELP FROM MACHINE
SIMV similar mode to IMV with a sig improvement. DOES NOT STACK BREATHS
What does does not stack breaths mean It will allow pt to take over that breath that the machine tried to start (so it will have different volume and not the set one)
PSV purely spontaneous mode of ventilation that is used for weaning. They are pt triggered, pressure limited, and flow cycled. It provides support to the pt during inspiration to overcome resistance caused by artificial airway, secretions, bronchospasm, oth
Spontaneous breathing pt triggered modes where pt determines their RR, insp flow rate, and size of breath (volume).
Pressure support ventilation works in S, weaning mode, Flow is provided at level of necessary to acheive the set pressure, pressure maintained thru insp, machine cycles off when flow delivered slows down, pt has control of RR and volume
Levels of 7 and below simply overcome airway resistance and make breathing easier. (pt will be getting that volume on their own)
Levels of 7 and above can add to spontaneous tidal volume
What basic parameters must be ordered on a ventilator volume, rate, mode, initial FiO2
Created by: TnJFarrington12