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Sociology Exam 2


Define social stratification the systematic inequalities among groups of people based on: 1. wealth & income (social class) 2. racial inequality 3. gender inequality
Define equality/inequality 1. ontological equality 2. equality of opportunity 3. equality of condition 4. equality of outcome
why does inequality exist? generated by 3 processes: 1.unequal division of labor and/or low mobility across occupations 2. surplus/abundance of resources 3. the desire to accumulate wealth & assests
what are the types of social mobility? horizontal, vertical, structual, exchange
why is the class structure changing? 1. massive growth in inequality between the rich & poor, "the great u-turn"2.shrinking of the working class with same growth in middle class & working poor. 3.growth & poverty is increasing twice as fast as population growth
why is income inequality increasing? largely due to increasing concentration of wealth of the very top of the income distribution; large fraction of economic gains go those at the top due to: changing tax codes, deunionization, weak social safety net & large, new multinational corporations
what are the consequences of inequality? 1. high levels of incmoe inequality reduces social cohesion, overall health, overall wealth & education- Increase crime, debt, & political polarization. Some inequality is necessary to prompt competition & innovation- how much is unclear.
ontological equality all equal
equality of opportunity education at the beginning & end doesn't matter as long as we have equal opportunity
equality of condition having the same conditions
equality of outcome being equal in the end
the movement between different position within a system social mobility, usually occupational mobility
horizontal social mobility changing one's job, but not improving status
vertical social mobility changing one's job to improve status
structural social mobility changes in an economy that affect wealth
exchange social mobility structure of economy stays the same & people gain or lose a job
Define race usually thought of as a biological construct: phenotypical differences caused by generic variations & behavior, intelligence, & physical ability vary RECENT: not true- All races are subsets of each other
compare race vs. ethnicity race- externally imposed, involuntary, hierarchical, exclusive, unequal. Ethnicity: cultural/national, voluntarily, self-defined, fluid, non-hierchial
Define white ethnicity and privilege fluctuated over time; recent scholarly attention; Privileges: mainstream, normative cultural standards; equated with American civic identity & national interests; white cultural, political & economic power are taken for granted; whiteness is often hidden
reasons for American diveristy immigration & immigration law is responsible for American diversity
types of racism Individual/Ideological. symbolic/laisez faire. colorblind. Institutional. Structural/Systematic
affirmative action Education, employment, criticisms, counter aurguments
the future of race in America by 2050: Americans will have no racial majority; 20% Americans will identify as multiracial; Latino & Asians will make up 25% & 8% of the US, respectively
ways of defining poverty 3 ways: economic well being, capability, social exclusion
ways we help those in poverty Government programs- Inkind; Government social assistance programs; private poverty alleviation
explanations for race and poverty in the inner-city state policies,G.I. Bill.banks-"redlining" - reject blck applcatns 2x as often as white; residential segregation concentrates poverty; deindustrialization has led to high rates of unemployment in city. Bad schools,inconsist. work, assoc w/ poor job skills
current theory of social construction of race is socially constructed; racial categories & the meaning of race vary over time & geogrpahically; racial status is differentially connected to systems of social inequality;meaning and inequalities conected with race are constantly defined & contested
Individual/Ideological explaining human behavior or relations on the basis of "natural" biological characteristics of different races; few racists who are incorrect or irrational
symbolic/laisez faire the persistent negative stereotyping of racial minorites & immigration in the US; involves blaming racial minorities for their position & resisting ameliorative policy efforts
colorblind treating everyone "equally" by deliberately avoiding the discussion of race or priveleging any one race over others through laws & policies.
Institutional policies & practices of particular institutions are implicated in the overt or covert perpetuation of social inequalities; e.g: "Jim Crow" laws & other US state policies
Structural/Systematic the entire system of social inequalities based around race or the sum, of institutional & individual racism in a society; has moved from overt forms of discrimination to more covert & naturalized forms.
affirmative action -Education first appeared 1968- Brown v.Board of Education; many universities have affirmative action programs; research shows increases in the # & success of non-whites on higher education, w/benefits for all students
affirmative action -employment federal law covers federal agencies & contractors; effective @ improving labor market position of non-whites & women when enforced
affirmative action-criticisms reverse discrimination; demeaning & harmful; harms business productivity; only benefits middle class minorities & harms lower class whites
affirmative action- counter aurguments only 1-2% whites have been effected; stigmatizing recipients is a problem, but much worse outcome without it; no evidence to support & some evidence to refute
economic well being 1 way of defining poverty: absolute v. relative Abs: lacking the basic means of survival REl: Beig poor in relation to others in society
capability 1 way of defining poverty- based on other things than money
social exclusion 1 way of defining poverty- excluded from the life based on your status; less common definitions.
what is the paradox of poverty reduction? the more targeted benefits are, the less likely they are to reduce poverty. Increase distinctions btwn citizens, making easy target for cuts. Strong evidence for this effect.
address specific needs of those in poverty: SNAP or "food stamp" program; also school lunch programs, WIC programs, housing developments or vouchers for the working poor. about 1/4 to 1/3 of the aid to the poor. Government programs- Inkind
benefits "in cash" to increase the income of those in poverty; means tested- TANF, SSI; social insurance- unemployment insurance social security; majority of aid to the poor Government social assistance programs
"In-kind" benefits provided by non-profit organization & churches; usually short term needs to those in poverty; about 10% of aid to the poor private poverty alleviation
Define sex biological characters dealing with sexual reproduction
Define gender set of behavior, norms, actions, & roles defining what it means to be a woman or man in a particular society in specific time
Define sexuality set of sexual feelings, desires, fantasies, behaviors & emotions. Usually one dominant type in a particular society a
Why sex and sexuality aren't just biological? sex not = sexuality; five sexes multidimensional model no longer dichotomous. both biological & culture; brain research & hormone research inconclusive; weak biological explanations for gender . sexuality is determined by age 5
Compare gender & sex variations gender difference & similarity coexist; gender as a central identity; Gender variations: across cultures, over time w/in same culture, intersectionality
Define gender roles a master status & signif roles that we all play; set of behavior norms around assumed to accompany gender status. teacher of g.r. begins @ birth, g.r. are associated w/ power & priviledge. transgressions are punished, esp when males adopt female roles
What are the elements of sexuality? desire,behavior & identity (dominated by orientation)sexuality is determined by age 5; varies across culture & time
Define sexual identities fairly new social constructs; 2 types: orientation & behaviors. Sexual behavior becomes a identity when it dominates our sexual lives
What does "orientation" refer to? sexual identity form/ heterosexuality, bisexuality, homosexuality, asexuality
What does "behaviors" refer to ? (re: sexual identities) partialism, fetishism, sadomasohism, exhibitionism, perafelia (?)
What is the Definition of Family? Cooperative group of adults organized to take charge of care of children
What are social rules around sex and marriage? people marry for: expression of love, economic or political purpose, to raise children, or for sex
Describe family units families live together in different ways: family of origin, family of procreation
Describe the rise and future of the traditional nuclear family -nuclear family- married father and mother and their children,all sharing living quarters -four changes of rise of nuclear family: compassionate marriage, industrial & capitalism, improved health and hygiene, longer childhoods
What are gender roles and family? maintenance of traditional gender role ideas: men are still seen as workers, women are still seen as caretakers
Effects of divorce women standard of living goes down, financial instability and emotional repercussions, remarriage and blended families
Family violence violence against women, children, and elderly
Universal and structure of education -primary: basic education and learning -secondary: mostly compulsory, free to students -tertiary (post-secondary): funded by tuition and taxes, optional
Describe race and class inequality in education race and class interact, gaps in school funding lead to significant differences in schools, difference in school quality are associated with different levels of educational attainment
Preparing for College -SAT & ACT are vital to the admission process -inequality in test results -does not project college readiness, readiness is low
Describe the credentialing of America -the rapid expansion of higher education in a new feature of American society -Credentialism-credentials as signals of social status or job qualification
Describe Inequality in Higher Education -class and racial inequality in access and graduation rates -primary barrier is rising tuition costs
Created by: NickUD