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# PSY 220 Ch 7

### Control Techniques in Experimental Research

When the influence of an extraneous variable is different from various groups. Differential Influence
Uf groups are equivlent on every variable except for one, then that one variable is the cause of the difference between the groups. Method of Difference
Control technique that equates groups of participants by ensuring every member an equal chance of being assigned to any group. Randomization
Randomly assigning a sample of individuals to a specific number of comparison groups. Random Assignment
Using any of the variety of techniques for equating participants on one or more variables. Matching
Control of measured extraneous variables during data analysis. Statistical Control
A matching technique that matches participants on the basis of the temporal sequence of administering an event. Yoked Control
A matching technique in which each participant is matche with another participant on selected variables. Precision Control
A matching technique that matches groups of participants by equating the overall distribution of the chosen variable. Frequency Distribution Control
A technique used to control for sequencing effects. Counterbalancing
A sequencing effect arising from the order in which the treatment conditions are administered to participants. Order Effect
A sequencing effect that occurs when performance in one treatment condition affects performance in another treatment condition. Carryover Effect
Sequence order is randomly determined for each individual. Randomized Counterbalanancing
Administering the treatment conditions to each individual patricipant in more than one order. Intrasubject Counterbalancing
Administering different sequences to different groups of participants. Group Counterbalancing
Enumerating all possible sequences and requiring different groups of participants to take each of the sequences. Complete Counterbalancing
Enumerating fewer than all possible sequences and requiring different groups of participants to take each of the sequences. Incomplete Counterbalancing
A treatment condition affects participants' performance in a later condition in one way and in another way when followed by a different condition. Differential Carryover Effects
Neither the experimenter nor the research participant is aware of the treatment condition administered to the participant. Double-blind Placebo Method
Giving the participant a bogus rationale for the experiment. Deception
An oral report in which the participant retrospectively recalls aspects of the experiment. Retrospective Verbal Report
An interview of the participant after the experiment is over. Postexperimental Inquiry
A participant's oral report of the experiment which is obtained as the experiment is being performed. Concurrent Verbal Report
Groups of participants who are stopped and interviewed at different stages of the experiment. Sacrifice Groups
Obtaining a participant's perceptions of the experiment after completetion of each trial. Concurrent Probing
A method that requires participants to verbalize their thoughts as they are performing the experiment. Think-Aloud Technique
Biased influence exerted by experimenter. Experimenter Effects
A method whereby knowledge of each research participant's treatment condition is kept from experimenter. Blind Technique
A method whereby knowledge of each research participant's treatment condition is kept from the experimenter through as many stages of the experiment as possible. Partial Blind Technique
The technique of totally automating the experimental procedures so that no experimenter-participant interaction is required. Automation
The extraneous variable used in matching. Matching Variable
What is the method of difference? And what should be the only different between groups? -Method of difference coinded by John Stuart Mill where groups should be equivalent on every variable except for the one variable that is the cause of the difference between the groups. -The IV.
What is the strongest research method/control method for obtaining evidence of causal effect? Randomization
When do you want to generate equivalent experimental groups? What do you do during the experiment? -At the beginning of the experiment. -Treat groups exactly the same except when administering IV.
What is randomization? What is it also known as? What does it do? What does it control for? -Equates participants by ensuring every member an equal chance of being assigned to any group. -Random assignment -Equating groups to eliminate systematic group differences. -Controls known and unknown extraneous variables.
How does randomization eliminate systematic bias in an experiment? Because it is random-statistically meaning equiprobability (equal probability).
What are the 4 different ways of matching? 1. Holding variables constant 2. Building extraneous variables into the design 3. Yoked control 4. Equating Participants 4a. Precision control 4b. Frequency distribution control
What is matching and when is it used? -Matching is using a variety of techniques for equating participants on one or more variables. -(i.e. matching by intelligence, scores of intelligence needed to do this. Then you can use randomization to equate groups.)
What are 3 control techniques carried out during the experiment? 1. Counterbalancing 2. Participants Effects 3. Experimenter Effects
What are 4 ways of counterbalancing? 1. Randomized 2. Intrasubject 3. Complete 4. Incomplete
What are 3 different types of controlling participant effects? 1. Double-blind placebo method 2. Deception 3. Control of participant interpretation
What are 3 ways of controlling experimenter effects? 1. Recording errors 2. Experimenter attribute erros 3. Experimenter expectancy errors
When do you use counterbalancing techniques? During repearted measures designs (aka within-subjects design) to control sequencing effects.
What are the two disadvantages to holding variables constant? What is a possible way to fix it? -This technique restricts size of population. Cannot be generalized. i.e. Gender affects study, only use females. Generalization does not affect males. Do identical study using only males. Compare.
What is matching by holding variables constant? All participants in each treatment group have the same degree or type of extraneous variable.
What is matching by building the extraneous variable into the research design? Aka. blocking. Adding an extraneous variable as an IV into the experiment. Reccomended to see the interaction between the variables and their main effects.
When is statistical control done? Where is it more important in? -Data analysis -Quasi-experiment rather than experimental because it lacks random assignment
What is matching by yoked control? Examples? Controls for the possible influence of participant-controlled events. i.e. Manipulated does experiment, recieves stimuli. Control does nothing, recieves stimuli. Control is 'yoked' onto the consequence of the manipulated.
What is matching by equating participants? What are the two different ways to do this? -Creating equivalent groups by matching a participant's characteristic rather than making their variables a part of the experiment. -Precision control and frequency distribution control
What is precision control? What are the four disadvantages of precision control? -When the investigator match participants on case-by-case (characteristic) basis. 1. Which matching variables to use? 2. Finding perfect match difficult sample smaller 3. Unique groups cannot be generalized 4. Adequate measure of variables
What is frequency distribution control? What are the disadvantages? -Overcomes the disadvantage of precision control by matching groups on overall distribution of matching variable. -Combination of variables may be mismatched. Only evident with more than one matching variable. pg.213
Which experimental design is counterbalancing only applied to and what does it control? -Repeated measures design (within-subjects design) Where all participants recieve all levels of at least one IV. -controls sequencing effects
What are the two types of sequencing effects? Describe 1. Order effects - when ppt changes from first condition to last condition b/c of different treatments. 2. Carryover effects - when ppt changes between last condition to first b/c of the effect of the previous treatment.
Created by: nga
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