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Psychology The study of behaviours and mental processes.
Brain Is what is physically inside the skull. Its study consists of understanding the functions of its various structures.
Mind Refers to the mental processes, and its study is an attempt to understand the conscious and unconscious.
Psychologist A person with a PhD who seeks to understand the brain and the mind, and how they affect and direct human behaviour.
Psychiatrist A medical doctor specializing in the treatment of emotional and mental disorders.
Psychodynamic Theory An approach to therapy that focuses on resolving a patient's conflicted conscious and unconscious feelings.
Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud's theory that all human behaviour is influenced by early childhood and that childhood experiences influence the unconscious mind throughout life.
Unconscious Unacceptable feelings,wishes that are beyond conscious awareness; Information processing in our mind that we aren't aware of; Freud said it holds our unaccepatle thoughts; Jung said it includes patterns of memories, instincts, & experiences common to all.
Conscious Information that we are always aware of; our conscious mind performs the thinking when we take in new information.
Ego Freud's term for the rational part of themind, which operates on the reality principle.
Id Freud's term for the instinctual part of the mind, which operates on the pleasure principle.
Superego Freud's term for the moral centre of the mind and acts as the conscience.
Defence Mechanism The ego's way of distorting reality to deal with anxiety.
Repression A Freudian defense mechanism where unacceptable desire or impulses are excluded from consciousness and left to operate in the unconscious.
Denial A defence mechanism wherby a person refuses to recognize or acknowledge something that is painful.
Displacement The shift of an emotion from its original focus to another object, person, or situation.
Projection A defence mechanism whereby a person attributes their own threatening impulses onto someone else.
Free Association A method used in psychoanalysis where a patient relaxes and says whatever comes to mind.
Oedipus complex Freud's description of the male's phallic stage between the ages of three & six when a boy has subconscious sexual desires for his mother but hatred for his father.
Electra complex Freud's love-hate-love term for preschool girls who are unconsciously obsessed with their fathers and view their mothers as rivals for their affection.
Sigmund Freud Founding father of modern psychoanalysis- believed that the mind was divided into 2 parts: conscious & unconscious; that the unconscious mind had a profound influence on our behaviour, & that hypnosis & free association could unlock it. Id, Ego, Superego
Neo-Freudians Psychologists who modified Freud's psychoanalytic theory to include social and cultural aspects.
Latency Stage (one of 5 stages) During this stage in Freud's Psychosexual Development Theory, boys seek the companionship of other boys and girls seek the companionship of girls while repressing their sexuality.
Carl Jung Swiss psychiatrist, and former student of Freud's. Founded 'analytical psychology'that understood motivation as based on the conscious & unconscious mind, which together forms the psche.
Analytical Psychology A branch of psychology founded by Carl Jung, based on the idea that balancing a person's psyche would allow the person to reach his or her full potential.
Introvert One of the three personality types that Carl Jung believed people could be catagorized into. Introverts are shy, serious, reflective, and inward thinking.
Extrovert One of the three personality types that Carl Jung believed people could be catagorized into. Extroverts have an outgoing, charismatic and action-oriented personality.
Ambivert One of the three personality types that Carl Jung believed people could be catagorized into. An ambivert is an individual who combines the characteristic of the introvert and the extrovert. Jung believed that the majority of people are ambiverts.
Archetypes Universal symbols that tend to reappear over time; includes models of people, behavioiurs, and personalities.
Personality An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.
REM sleep The discovery of rapid eye movement sleep and dreams has been shown to be important in helping us consolidate the day's important events. Even animal require REM sleep.
Dream Interpretation Dreams can be useful in a scientific way-to help a patient overcome an obsession or phobia, for example. Both Freud & Jung believed in analyzing dreams as a method of understanding the unconscious. Freud's, "Interpretation of Dreams" :road to unconscious.
Behaviourism A psychological school of thought that asserts that psychology can only study & manipulate what it can see - behaviour; believing that psychologists need empirical evidence, obtained through experimentation, to understand & change human behaviour.
Ivan Pavlov Nobel prize-winning Russian scientist,known for studies on conditioned behaviour using dogs. Interested in the relationship between stimulus & response; established 'classical conditioning'. Redirected study of psychology towards observable behaviour.
Unconditioned stimulus A stimulus that naturally triggers a response.
Unconditioned response The natural response to an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned stimulus An originally neutral stimulus that comes to trigger a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditiononal stimulus.
Conditioned response The learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.
Classical conditioning A type of learning where a once neutral stimulus comes to produce a particular response after pairings with a conditioned stimulus.
B.F. Skinner American psychologist who developed 'operant conditioning', studying how the use of rewards and punishment can influence behaviour.Was only concerned with observable behaviours, not the mental processes behind them. "Skinner Box".
Operant conditioning A type of learning that uses rewards & punishment to achieve a desired behaviour.
Extinction In operant conditioning, the diminishing of a conditioned response due to a lack of reinforcement.
Humanism A psychological school of thought that believes that the clients should be very involved in their own recovery, rather than relying on therapist's interpretation of issues. Introduced & legitimized qualitative methodologies to field of psychology.
Abraham Maslow One of the founders of humanist psychology. Known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" to describe his theory of motivation. Was interested in studying 'well' people and "self-actualizing".
Self-actualization Also known as self-fulfillment; reaching one's full potential; occurs only after basic physical and psychological needs are met.
Viktor Frankl Believed that we have the freedom to choose how we respond to what life throws at us; that everyone has an inborn inclination to seek the meaning of their existance, and those who do not, will feel empty and may experience depression.
Logotherapy A new form of therapy used by Viktor Frankl; a form of psychotherapy that tries to help the patient find the aim & meaning of his or her own life as a human being without accessing the medical aspect of mental health.
Carl Rogers One of the founders of humanist psychology & developed client-centred therapy. Believed that clients should be able to express themselves freely during therapy.
Client-centred therapy A humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which the client plays an active role.
Cognitive Psychology Studies the mental processes in the brain associated with memory, learning and thinking.
Cognition The mental processes in the brain associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering.
Albert Bandura Canadian psychologist who established social-cognitive theory, a perspective on personality that takes a person's motivation, environment , & behaviour into account. Believed people learn behaviour by watching and then imitating others.
Bobo Doll Experiment Albert Bandura's experiment used to demonstrate the potential to learn behaviour by watching & then imitating.
Bystander Effect In social psychology used to explain why the larger the number of people in a group, the less likely it is that individuals will stop to help someone in an emergency. Kitty Genovese was a victim of the Bystander Effect.
Kitty Genovese A woman attacked in 1964, whose screams were heard by her neighbours, yet nobody came to assist her, demonstrating the Bystander Effect.
Erik Erikson German psychologist who believed that humans continue to develop over their lifetime, rather than just in in childhood. His 8 stages of Psycosocial Development outline the developmental tasks that must be resolved during each stage of life.
Jean Piaget French psychologist who was influential in developmental and cognitive psychology. He developed the 4 stages of Cognitive Development which is still influential today and is applied to education.
Psychosexual Developmental Theory Freud's stages of development theory was based on how children focus on pleasure as they mature and that much of personality is developed at an early age. The theory was much criticized for being sexist and lacking in evidence.
Skinner Box A chamber designed by B.F. Skinner that had a bar on one wall that, when pressed, caused a mechanism to release food. This box was Skinner's operant conditioning chamber.
Neuroscience Science that specializes in the study of the human brain.
Left/Right Hemispheres The brain in divided into 2 sides; each side focuses on specialized tasks/skills.
Corpus Callosum The cable of nerves that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain and is believed to be involved in creativity and problem solving. Is thicker & wider in females.
Frontal Cortex Is often referred to as the "CEO" of the brain since it is responsible for logical thought, planning, stratagizing, & judgement.
Cerebellum Part of the brain involved with the coordination of muscles and physical movements, as well as the coordination of thinking processes.
Amygdala An almond shaped structure in the temporal lobe that plays a central role in emotion and the evaluation of stimuli. Part of the brain associated with emotional & gut responses.
Psychoanalytic Psychology A process designed to uncover a patient's unconscious thoughts by encouraging them to discuss their background, feelings and experiences.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder A form of anxiety that is marked by the tendency to perform an action repeatedly in order to relieve persistent, unwanted thoughts.
Diffusion of Responsibility People share the responsibility for helping and consequently no one intervenes.
Birth Order Some theorists like Alfred Adler believed that the order in which you are born can influence your personality.
Upstander A person who takes action, particularly when the easiest or most acceptable course is to do nothing, when he or she believes something is right.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder A type of anxiety disorder characterized by the reliving of a traumatic event through flashbacks and nightmares.
ADHD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) A developmental disorder characterized by inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity.
CAMH The Canadian Center for Addiction and Mental Health. Provides both inpatient and out reach programs to assist communities in dealing with mental health issues.
Chameleon Effect The mimicking of the body language of a person with whom we are interacting. eg. while watching you twirl your hair in your fingers, your friend start to do the same
Jean Martin Charcot A psychiatrist that worked alongside Freud and introduced him to the concept of hypnosis.
Major Depression A mental disorder marked by deep prolonged unhappiness, anxiety, sleeping problems, changes in appetite, and possible suicide attempts.
Schizophrenia A mental disorder marked by delusions and hallucinations. It most likely requires hospitalization.
Karen Horney Classified 3 personality types: compliant, aggressive & detached. A feminist neo-Freudian, and founder of feminine psychology, who argued that women were pushed by society & culture to depend on men for both love & status.
Created by: satecAPS