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Sociology

TermDefinition
Socialization The interactive process of shaping an individual and his or her environment. It is a two-way process starting at birth and ending at death. The way our environment shapes us.
Socialization Agents The term used to describe cultural institutions and people involved in socialization, such as family, school, and media.
Cookie-cutter-syndrome The theory that children are likely to think and behave like their parents despite environmental influences.
Nature One's biological makeup that predetermines attitudes and behaviour.
Nurture The environmental experiences that shape one's socialization.
Norms Expectations about how people should behave.
Folkways Informal norms; the informal, accepted ways of behaving,thinking and acting in culture.
Mores The formal, traditional customs, behaviours, and attitudes of a culture.
Taboo A custom prohibiting or restricting a practice or action (such as incest) since it is shunned.
Sanction Informal or formal penalty or reward to ensure conformity within a group.
Culture A way of life. A total system of ideas, values, behaviours, & attitudes of a society commonly shared by most members of a society.
Subculture A distinguishable group of people within a larger culture who share a common stystem of values, beliefs, attitudes, behaviours, and liftestyle that are different from those of the dominant culture.
Counterculture Stands defiantly opposed to the dominant culture of society and rejects the mos prevalent values and the most important norms of society.
Roles The expected behaviour of a person in aparticular social position.
Achieved Roles/Status The position that an individual holds in society based on his or her accomplishment of a particular task or role.
Ascribed Roles/Status The position that an individual holds in society that is determined at birth and over which he or she has no control.
Isolate Child A child raised in near isolation within a human household.
Feral Child An unwanted child deserted at a young age and raised by animals.
"Genie" A famous isolate case of a young girl discovered in California in the 1970s; lived in isolation for approx. 13 yrs. A case study that highlights the importance of understanding the influence environment has on an individual's development.
"Victor" A most famous feral case of a young boy discovered in France in the 1797 who had lived in the wild for approximately 11 years. French psychologists who studied Victor called their study "The Forbidden Experiment."
Harry Harlow An American psychology professor who conducted the famous 'Surrogate Mother Experiment', Discovered that rhesus monkeys preferred to spend most of their time cuddling a soft 'fake mother' device than with the feeding device.
Rene Spitz An Austrian-American psychoanalyst. He conducted studies in an orphanage in the 1940s that were the first to show more systematically that social interactions with other humans are essential for children’s development.
Macrosociology An approach of sociology that analyzes social systems on a large scale.
Microsociology The study of small groups and individuals within a society.
Structural Functionalism Argues that social institutions exist because they benefit their participants.
Conflict Theory A perspective/theory that suggests that an issue can be understood by examining the way power is managed. Argues that the law punishes powerful people less severely than it punishes the powerless.
Feminist Sociology Study of gender inequality. Concludes that women have been marginalized, deprived of power, & have been without equal membership in society; that society is patriarchal, favouring men, based on male authority & constructed to favour men.
Symbolic Interactionism According to this theory, the individual is at the centre of understanding society,not social systems. An issue cannot be understood by a third party unless the issue's significance to the participant is understood.
Emile Durkheim Established "sociology" as a discipline; provided the foundation of structural functionalism; believed that society functions logically & protects the interests of its members;that humans are social creatures & define themselves by social interactions.
Talcott Parsons Responsible for developing structural functionalist school of thought in U.S. Emphazized that all social phenomena & relationships could be explanined through their functions in society; individuals and groups could be defined by the purpose they served.
Herbert Spencer British philosopher & sociologist during Victorian era; a Social Darwinist & applied the theory of natural selection to society; believed that the fittest should survive while the weak deserve to live in unfortunate circumstances or be allowed to die.
Karl Marx Author of "Communist Manifesto"; German philosopher interested in economic history; his theories concentrate on idea of class conflict &concluded that the uneven distribution of wealth was a normal condition in society.
Dorthy Smith Canadian sociologist;contends that women have long been marginalized in society; she is working towards a sociology that reflects the realities and experiences of all people regardless of race, gender, or economic status.
Max Weber German scholar; believed that social life had many examples of conflict and cohesion; introduced the theory of Rationaliztion (social actions motivated by efficiency or benefit, not custom or emotion);that rationaliztion helps society to run efficiently.
Jane Elliot In 1968, an elementary school teacher that led her students to change the way they thought about racism and prejudice. Each day she privileged those with brown eyes and blue eyes.
Charles Cooley An American sociologist is best known for his concept of "looking-glass self", the theory that self-image is formed largely by the messages we get from others, and an individual's interpretation of those messages.
George Herbert Mead American sociologist, psychologist, philosopher, who suggested individuals assumes a variety of different social roles and learn early on which "mask" to wear, "I-self" or "me-self". Founding theorist for symbolic interaction.
Auguste Comte The term 'sociology' was first used by this French philosopher who defined sociology as the systematic study of society.
Primary socialization The process of learning the basic skills needed to survive in society.
Secondary socialization The process of learning how to behave appropriately in group situations.
Anticipatory socialization The process of learning how to plan the way to behave in new situation.
Resocialization The process by which negative behaviour is transformed into socially acceptable behaviour.
Primary agent of soicalization The family; responsible for meeting an individual's most basic needs.
Secondary agent of socialization Are non-family people and institutions ( eg. schools, peers, media) that teach an individual social behaviours and norms.
Primary Group A concept attributed to Charles Cooley, which is a set of people with whom an individual has strong emotional and personal connections.
Sociological Imagination A concept developed by sociologist C.Wright Mills, which means the ability to connect individual experiences to social realities.
Social Influence The effect of other people on a person's thought and actions.
Values Shared ideas and standards that are considered acceptable and binding
Self-Concept The sense of who one is.
Third Gender People who do not identify themselves as completely male or completely female either because they are biologically both or because their gender identity differs from their assigned sex.
Systemic Discrimination Discrimination built into social institutions. For example, a physically disabled person is unable to work at a location because it is not wheelchair-accessible.
Stereotype An oversimplified mental picture, or overgeneralization, that assigns certain characteristics to particular groups.
Prejudice An individual judgment or active hostility toward another social group.
Outgroup A social group toward which an individual feels disrespect of opposition.
Cult A type of counterculture whose social and moral views are rigid and are typically guided by a charismatic leader.
Ethnocentrism A belief that one's own culture is superior to any other culture.
CNN Doll Experiment In 1968, an elementary school teacher that led her students to change the way they thought about racism and prejudice. Each day she privileged those with brown eyes and blue eyes.
Bobo Doll Experiment Conducted by Albert Bandura. It demonstrated that children imitate aggressive behaviour modeled by adults.
Social Identity Theory (Tajfel) Group behaviour helps to shape one's identity.
Obedience Experiment Conducted by Stanley Milgram. It investigated why people are induced to obey unjust regimes, under the influence of an authority figure. 2/3 of participants were willing to administer a lethal shock.
Created by: satecAPS