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Bio Psych Exam3 Pt4

Ch 11. Sex & Hormones

What are hormones? Chemical messengers that are released into the bloodstream; their messages are widespread (unlike NTs); sex hormones are a type.
What are sex hormones? What produces them? There are three main categories: Estrogens (ie Estradiol), Androgens (ie Testosterone), and Progestins (i.e. Progesterone); they are produced by the Gonads (ovaries or testes) and Adrenal Glands
How do hormones exert their effects? They exert their effects by binding to (metabotropic) receptors, activating proteins and through gene expression
What are sex differences in regards to hormones? The relative amounts of Estrogens and Androgens differ between sexes (males have more Androgens, females more Estrogens); also the timing of release is different (women's are released cyclicly, while men's are released steadily)
What are Ovaries? Gonads develop into Ovaries for females; they produce ova (eggs), which have an X sex chromosome
What are Testes? Gonads develop into Testes for males; they produce sperm, half of which have an X sex chromosome and half of which have a Y
What determines hormone production (and therefore sexual development)? The 23rd (final) pair of chromosomes (XX or XY) determines hormone production; the presence of absence of a Y chromosome
What are the types of effects that sex hormones have on us? They have both Organizing and Activating effects
What do Organizing and Activating refer to? The different types of effects that sex hormones have on us
What are Organizing effects? Long-lasting effects of a hormone that are present during a sensitive period in development; occur from conception to sexual maturity; they are changes in the brain and body that distinguish females from males; differentiation begins at fertilization
What are Activating effects? Temporary effects of a hormone, which occurs when that hormone is present; after sexual differentiation occurs; trigger behaviors (often related to reproduction); specific behavior depends on organizing effects; influence outside of sensitive periods
What is the default pattern of development? To develop as female
What are the Gonads? Sex gland that produces sex hormones; Ovaries (female) or Testes (male)
Describe the development process and timeframe of the Gonads. Development of Gonads begins 6 weeks after conception; presence or absence of SRY protein (produced by Sex Determining Region on Y chromosome) causes Gonads to develop one way or the other
Describe the development of Ovaries. Because there is no Y chromosome present in females, there is no SRY protein; gonads develop as Ovaries
Describe the development of Testes. Y chromosome contains a Sex Determining Region; produces SRY protein; SRY protein causes gonads to develop as Testes
Describe the development process and timeframe for External Genitalia. Begins 8 weeks after conception (3rd month); begins with the same primitive structures; if testosterone is present, male structures develop; if testosterone is absent, female structures develop
What determines whether Testosterone is present for the development of Genitalia? The presence of Testosterone is determined by the previously developed Gonads- if Testes developed, Testosterone is present.
Describe the development process and timeframe for Internal Sex Organs. Begins 8 weeks after conception (3rd month); everyone is born with two sets of primitive sex organs (Wolffian & Mullerian); in males, Testosterone promotes the Wolffian system while MIH degenerates the Mullerian; default pattern is to develop as female
What is the Wolffian System? One of two sets of primitive internal sex organs present at birth; it is promoted by Testosterone (released by the previously developed Testes in males)
What is the Mullerian System? One of two sets of primitive internal sex organs present at birth; default is to further develop the Mullerian system, but MIH (released by the previously developed Testes in males) degenerates the Mullerian system
Describe the development process for Male Internal Sex Organs. Both the Wolffian and Mullerian system are present at birth; default to further develop Mullerian system, but in males the presence of MIH (released by the previously developed Testes) degenerates Mullerian system; Testosterone promotes Wolffian system
Describe the development process for Female Internal Sex Organs. Both the Wolffian and Mullerian system are present at birth; default to further develop Mullerian system.
What are Primary Sex Characteristics? Sexual dimorphisms that are present at birth (Gonads, Internal & External Sex Organs); they are Organizing Effects
What are Secondary Sex Characteristics? There is a surge in sex hormones during puberty that causes growth spurt, body dimorphisms & the onset of fertility; they are Organizing Effects
What happens if you disrupt sex hormones during a sensitive period? Influences Organizing Effects.
What happens if you disrupt sex hormones outside of a sensitive period? Influences Activating Effects.
What could happen to a female if her Testosterone levels were increased? Can cause masculinization of the brain, external genitalia and behavior
What are certain things that could have feminizing effects on a Male? Estradiol (an Estrogen) exposure; certain drugs (like alcohol & marijuana)
Describe Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. Individuals with an XY chromosome pattern (genetically male) have the genital appearance and expresses characteristics of a female; internally, they have underdeveloped sexual organs of both sexes; see case of Anne S.
What is Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome caused by? Abnormal Androgen Receptors; see case of Anne S.
How do Abnormal Androgen Receptors influence development in Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome? Testosterone present, but cant interact w receptors; its needed for masculinization (or Wolffian system & male external genitalia dont develop, brain & behavior develop as female); MIH is present, so Mullerian doesn't fully develop; see case of Anne S.
Describe the case of Anne S. 26 y.o. housewife presenting with lack of menstruation & pain during sex; exam reveals normal female genitalia but abnormal internal sex organs; DNA shows XY (male) genotype; diagnosis: Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
Describe Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH). Most common disorder of sexual development; results in masculinizing effects on a female, XX fetus; ambiguous external organs, behavior (such as toy preferences & play) are altered; increased interest in bi-/homo- sexuality; see case of Elaine
What is the cause of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)? Adrenal Gland functions abnormally, produces excessive androgen levels which cause the masculinizing effects; see case of Elaine
Describe the case of Elaine. Female born w masculinized external genitalia; excessive levels of androgens for XX female; parents chose to "normalize" development (surgery for genitalia, hormones to decrease androgens, estrogens to help with secondary sex characteristics); CAH
Describe the case of John->Joan. Botched circumcision at 8 mo; expert recommended castration, surgery, and estrogen at puberty; reported outcome- female-typical development; reality- persistently resisted feminization; truth revealed at 14 y.o.
What does the case of John->Joan highlight? The Nature/Nurture Dynamic of Sexual Development; XY Genotype + Prenatal Androgen Exposure VS. Social Learning
What caused the outcome of the John-Joan case? It's not just about external genitalia and/or socialization; early organizing effects and prenatal androgen exposure are important!
What are some sex differences in the brain (Female)? Females have more communication between hemispheres; high levels of Estrogen may be linked with verbal fluency; have better fine motor control
What are some sex differences in the brain (Male)? Male brain has a larger volume; have better spatial relations, mental rotation (which is linked to Testosterone)
How do hormones affect the brain? Hormones influence cell growth & death rates; # of neurons & synapses
What two parts of the Hypothalamus that highlight sex differences? Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus & Ventromedial Nucleus; some of the clearest biological sex differences
What is the Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus and where is it located? Part of the Hypothalamus that is linked to male sexual behavior (like mounting); if damaged, this behavior is decreased; much larger (2X) in males than in females; linked to Testosterone
What is the Ventromedial Nucleus and where is it located? Part of the Hypothalamus that is linked to female sexual behavior (like arching); If damaged, this behavior decreases; larger in females
How do the Activating Effects of Sex Hormones influence the brain? How long does it take? Changes the brain's response to different experiences; primarily by influencing the hypothalamus; 15-30 minutes
What is Estrogen? It's activating effects? Category of sex hormone (including estradiol) that are more abundant in females; may be linked with verbal fluency; activating effects include sensitizing sensory nerves, alter pain sensitivity and increase sexual arousal and sensitivity
What are Testosterone's activating effects? Can alter dopamine levels; increase sexual arousal and sensitivity
Describe Testosterone levels in married men; what does this mean? Lower levels of Testosterone in married men; levels are linked with marriage & infidelity (low levels: marriage & cohabitation/ high levels: infidelity, divorce, single)
Describe the effects of castration on sex offenders? What does this illustrate? Illustrates the activating effects of sex hormones in men; effects of castration include altered sexual interest & behavior, less body hair, and fat deposits on the hips and chest
Describe the Periovulatory period for females. What does this show? Shows the activating effects of sex hormones; estrogen levels peak; up interest in sexual activity; preference for highly masculine faces
Why are men more likely to seek sex with multiple partners? What is this perspective called? Evolutionary perspective says... Genetic fitness- want to spread their genes! They can father many children, while women can only have one pregnancy per 9 months!
What are the two strategies for genetic fitness? Which do men choose and why? Women? Loyalty and Deadbeat Dad (as many children as possible); Second option is unavailable for females (caregiving linked to oxytocin, they are the pregnant ones)
Describe the evolutionary perspective for men's dating choices and habits. Men focus more intensely on physical attributes (such as facial symmetry, hip to waist ration, and youth) which are predictors of genetic fitness & reproductive capacity.
Describe the evolutionary perspective for women's dating choices and habits. Women tend to be more selective; parental investment differences; pregnancy & childcare limit resources; seek provider, physical protection, and promise as a parent; caution during courtship.
Why do men react more intensely to infidelity than women do? Because they have a lot invested in their own genes; men are not certain about which offspring they father while women know if they are pregnant its theirs; crossculturally, infidelity is never more appropriate for women (either same or less)
Describe the concordance rates for sexual orientation. If a male twin is homosexual, an identical male twin is also homosexual about 50% of the time; a fraternal male twin is also homosexual about 20% of the time; suggests a genetic component to sexuality.
What are non-genetic factors for sexual orientation? Prenatal hormone levels; maternal stress; number of biological older brothers (3% increase in likelihood a male will be homosexual for each older brother- bc moms immune system begins to suppress androgen levels with each male pregnancy)
What is the Interstitial Nucleus 3 of the Anterior Hypothalamus (INAH3)? correlates with sexual preference/orientation; denser set of cell bodies in heterosexual man than in a homosexual man or heterosexual female; lesioning this region causes loss of sexual interest, not a change in preference
What is the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis (BNST)? size correlates with sexual/gender identity, not sexual preference; Stria Terminalis links the thalamus, hypothalamus & amygdala
What are Adrenal Glands? Endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys and produce hormones, including androgens
What is Mullerian Inhibiting Hormone (MIH)? A defeminizing hormone that comes from the testes; aids in degeneration of the internal Mullerian structures
What are Masculinizing Effects? Promotes male development; ie testosterone aids in growth of Wolffian system; testosterone is key in masculinization
What are Defeminizing Effects? Works against female development; ie MIH degerates Mullerian structures; MIH is key for defeminiziation
What is SRY? SRY is a protein produced by the Sex Determining Region of the Y chromosome (which is only present in males); SRY protein causes gonads to develop as testes; bc females have no SRY protein, their gonads develop as ovaries
What is Gender Identity? What structure is it tied with? The sex with which a person identifies; biologically tied to Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis (BNST)
What structure is Sexual Preference tied to? INAH3 (Interstitial Nucleus 3 of the Anterior Hypothalamus)
Created by: Kelsey20
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