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Pharm 11 Local Anest


Ester-linked LA for infiltration anesthesia. SE: cardiac arrest, hypotension, CNS depression/excitation. low hydrophobicity-> rapid removal via circulation-> low potency and short half-life. Excess PABA can reduce efficacy of sulfonamides Procaine
Ester-linked LA for topical anesthesia and spinal anesthesia. SE: keratoconjunctivitis. Contra: Heart block. High hydrophobicity-> longer DOA and higher potency. Tetracaine
Naturally occurring ester-link LA for mucosal and ophthalmic anesthesia and diagnosis of Horner's pupil. SE: coronary atheroscler, tachycardia, seizure, CNS depress/excite, anxiety. Medium potency and DOA. Marked vasoconstriction, cardiotox, euphoria Cocaine
Amide-linked LA for infil anesthesia, periph nerve block, Class 1 anitarrhythmic. SE: heart and lung arrest, arrhythmias, tinnitus, dizzy, paresthesia, tremor. Contra: methemoglobinemia. Rapid onset, medium duration, moderate potency (hydrophob) Lidocaine - administer with epinephrine to prolong DOA
Amide-linked LA for dental infil anesthesia and nerve block. SE: heart and lung arrest, arrhythmias, tinnitus, dizzy, paresthesia, tremor. Contra: methemoglobinemia. Has vasoconstrictive action. Prilocaine - good for pt's w epinephrine contraindications
Amide-linked LA for infil, regional, EPIDURAL, and spinal anesthesia, and sympath nerve block. SE: Cardiotox at high conc. High hydrophob, high potency, long DOA Bupivacaine - Levobupivacaine and Ropivacaine are less cardiotoxic (safer)
Amide-linked LA for topical local anesthesia on normal skin, mucosal membs, and dental procedures. Delivered as cream, swab, or patch. Eutectic Mixture of Lidocaine and Prilocaine (EMLA)
Created by: Jakphooey



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