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Humanistic & Phenomenological personality theory: maslow & rogers

positive regard -self-concept is formed>want other people to like it -b/c individual's need for this can only be satisfied by others, our self-concept is increasingly differentiated in terms of others. alter self-concept to get this from others
self regard -once positive regard has been met by others, individuals develop self regard -need for this has to become separate from need from others positive regard
List Maslow's hierarchy of needs Self Actualization Esteem Needs Belonging Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
self-actualizatoin motivated to actualize our own potential
Organismic Valuing Process (ovp) innate ability to differentiate between those experiences that actualize our potential and those that dont. if something frustrates you it does not fit into this, if it satisfies you it does.
importance of significant others parents can aid helping infants differentiate between various body experiences. 'bad' parents may not give their child important experiences,'good' parents may also interfere with this process
concept of self starts with discriminating the physical self from the rest of the world (me vs not me) infants slowly develop field of experiences called self-experiences which help mold self-concept
unconditional positive regard no requirements are placed on a person to attain the respect of the other will continue to evaluate experiences in terms of the ovp
conditional positive regard certain requirements are placed on giving respect to the individual; people find that others value them in some respect but not in other respects 'do the following for me and i will love you'
self-alienation in order to attain positive regard from others, individuals falsify own values and perceive them in terms of the value of others lose touch with ovp self-concept becomes increasingly inaccurate, unrealistic, and rigid over time.
Achieving authentic being 'Being' signifies the special quality of existence that characterizes being human, a quality that involves mentality, intelligence, and awareness. 'Authentic' denotes honesty with self and with others.
Being-in-the-world unity of person and environment; they are both creations of our mind so they are so interdependent that they are inseparable by 'world,' they emphasize the environment people create for themselves. by 'being,' sum total of experiences
3 modes of being-in-the-world Umwelt Mitwelt Eigenwelt
umwelt the world around you or your connotation of the biological and physical world; something does not exist until it is in your path
mitwelt the with-world or your understanding of the world of people; getting know people-socializing
eigenwelt the own world which refers to the internal dialogue or relationship with the self. angel vs devil on your shoulders
self-alienation For the sake of positive regard from others, the individual comes to falsify some of the values experienced and perceive them only in terms of their values to others
Problem with depending on evaluation of others adopting the norms of others, does not guarantee acceptance.
compensating via role definitions slip into relationships based on role definitions set by society,and fail to communicate with partner. husband works and brings home bread - wife cooks cleans and takes care of children
ontological anxiety a decision that pushes the person into the future, the unknown, and the unpredictable. it is attractive due to its growth potential, but unattractive due to the anxiety it produces
ontological guilt another decision that pulls the person into the past, the status quo, and the familiar. it is attractive because it is comfortable, unattractive because the person loses the possibility of development
forms of ontological anxiety 1. fear of death (umwelt) 2. fear of making decisions without knowing the outcome (eigenwelt) 3. fear of meaninglessness (eigenwelt) 4. fear of isolation (mitwelt
existential ideal and ontological anxiety/guilt minimize choosing the past. minimize ontological guilt by choosing for the future. accept responsibility by recognizing the hazards of choosing for the future but choosing it anyway
Transforming the ontological to neurotic we gain comfort only in the short term when we give up our freedom to decide in the face of ontological anxiety. become conventional and common, show little complexity in life, perpetuate the life that you have no choice
neurotic anxiety involves shame and takes the form of fear that others and yourself will know how frightened you are
neurotic guilt will take the form of condemnation of one's entire being rather than only a particular act or decision
courage the recognition of their true power and dignity. courage to persist in the face of anxiety
epistemological assumptions a theory must include other disciplines (sociology, biology, political science, etc), must be scientific, accounts of human behavior should be practical, must be able to understand theory in a way others can understand, grounded in evolutionary theory
dread and self-consciousness produces the unsettling awareness of one's unavoidable death, recognition that death can be tragic and premature
cultural worldviews consists of constructed beliefs about the nature of reality shared by individuals. permits people to control their fear of death by convincing them they have enduring significance in reality
self-esteem & cultural worldviews believing in cultural worldviews is insufficient to reduce anxiety. we need to meet the standards of value prescribed by our worldviews
Created by: lrivas_2313
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