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AP Psych: Developmental Psych Unit

Developmental Psychology focuses on the systematic changes (physical, cognitive, and social) that occur during the human lifespan
Continuity v. Discontinuity gradual, continuous v. separate stages
Universality Question same for children all over the world
Stability Question do traits persist or do we change?
Nature v. Nurture genetic inheritance v. experience
Longitudinal study same group for a long time
Pros of a longitudinal study study the same people, therefore more accurate
Cons of a longitudinal study time consuming and expensive
Cross-sectional study study different age groups at the same time
Pros of a cross-sectional study less expensive and less time consuming
Cohort effect different people growing up at different times
Germinal Stage Cells rapidly divide, around 100 cells at the end; zygote (fertilized egg) floats in uterus; from conception to 2 weeks
Embryonic Stage the inner cells of the zygote attaches to the uterus; embryo; from 2 weeks to 8 weeks
Fetal Stage the fetus is a developing human organism; from 9 weeks to birth
Threats to prenatal development malnutrition; teratogens
Teratogens environmental influences; std's, smoking, alcohol, drugs, x-rays, poisons
Effects on child from STD's risk of child having disease, conjunctivitis (pink eye), blindness, death
Effects on child from Smoking premature birth, low birth weight, learning disorders, lower IQ, death
Effects on child from Alcohol or other drugs distinctive facial features, learning disorders, premature birth, death
Effects on child from X-rays mental retardation, cancer, miscarriage
Effects on child from Poisons, such as lead or mercury retardation, coma, death
Rooting reflex turn head to nurse; 0 to 4 months
Moro reflex falling sensation; 0 to 4/5 months
Babinski reflex (plantar reflex) stroke baby's foot reflex; 0 to 2 years
Palmar reflex grip items; 0 to 5/6 months
Stepping reflex 0 to 6 weeks
Swimming reflex baby will paddle and kick; 0 to 4/6 months
Maturation a genetically programmed biological plan of development that is relatively independent of experience or age; allows us to respond in an appropriate manner
Habituation decreased responsiveness with repeated stimulation
Temperament refers to a child's characteristic mood and activity level
New York Longitudinal Study ***SHORT ANSWER QUESTION!!!!*** Easy infants (40%) Difficult Infants (10%) Slow to Warm Up Infants (15%) Average Infants (35%)
How is basic temperament determined? determined partially by genetics; does tend to predict adult behaviors; many psychologists believe that the environment does have some influence on temperament; can't be changed after childhood
Attachment close emotional relationship between infant and caregivers, develops over time
Separation anxiety child cries when caregiver leaves room (6 to 18 months)
Mary Ainsworth's study on attachment secure (most) - seek support but explore as well insecure-avoidant - avoid assistance; little exploration insecure ambivalent/resistant - cling/resist; inconsistent *differs from one culture to another*
Konrad Lorenz studied imprinting
imprinting formation of a strong bond of attachment on the first moving object seen after birth
Harry Harlow baby monkeys form attachments to inanimate objects if mother is never present; importance of comfort and love over food
Jean Piaget leading theorist on cognitive development
schemas mental frameworks for understanding our environment or acting on our environment
adaptation process by which people change to function more effectively - we adjust our schemas
assimilation process of incorporating new objects or situations into our existing schemas
accomodation process of altering existing schemas or creating new ones to deal with new objects or experiences
Piaget's stages of cognitive development sensorimotor stage, pre-operational stage, concrete operational stage, formal operational stage
Sensorimotor stage child begins to explore and learns to control his environment; object permanence is the major intellectual advance; 0 to 2 years
Pre-operational stage child acquires language and begins to understand that other people see things differently; child is very egocentric until this happens; 2 to 7 years
Concrete Operational stage performance of mental tasks as long as objects are visible; 7 to 11 years
Formal Operational Stage mental tasks using abstract ideas; 11+ years
Diana Baumrind theory on parenting styles *authoritative is most successful*
Authoritative (democratic) firm, but understanding
Authoritarian rigid and controlling
Permissive anything goes, no limits
Erik Ericson stages of psychosocial development
Ericson's 1st stage birth to 1 year; trust v. mistrust
Ericson's 2nd stage 1 to 3 years; autonomy v. shame and doubt
Ericson's 3rd stage 3 to 5 years; initiative v. guilt
Ericson's 4th stage 6 to 12 years; industry v. inferiority
Ericson's 5th stage adolescence; identity v. role confusion
Ericson's 6th stage young adulthood; intimacy v. isolation
Ericson's 7th stage middle adulthood; generativity v. stagnation
Ericson's 8th stage late adulthood; integrity v. despair
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development Pre-conventional morality, conventional morality, post-conventional morality
Pre-conventional morality focus is on self-interest (before age 9); stage one and stage two
Kolberg's Stage 1 goal is to avoid punishment
Kolberg's Stage 2 goal is to gain material rewards; self-interest
Conventional morality early adolescence; stage three and stage four
Kolberg's Stage 3 goal is to be a good boy/good girl
Kolberg's Stage 4 goal is law and order
Post-conventional morality beyond early adolescence; stage five and stage six
Kolberg's Stage 5 goal is the rights of others (social contract)
Kolberg's Stage 6 goal is abstract moral and ethical principles of justice, equality, respect, etc.
Adolescent brain not fully developed in areas responsible for: judgement, emotional control, organization, and planning
teens looking at situations from different viewpoints have difficulty; tend to be very egocentric
imaginary audience "everyone is looking at me"; can lead to self-consciousness or loud, provocative behavior
personal fable exaggerated sense of one's uniqueness ("my problems are unique, no one understands me") or feelings of invulnerability which can lead to risky behavior
Elisabeth Kubler Ross stages of dying: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
Created by: hailey_joy