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RIT OB CH 3 & 6

Behavior Modification/Reinforcement Theory ABCs - Antecedents (before), Behavior (what person does), Consequences (after)
Social Learning Theory: Observation learning by observing, and watching other's pos/neg outcomes
Behavioral Modeling observing others behaviors
Learning behavior consequences observing others consequences
Self-reinforcement setting our own consequences (good or bad)
Direct Experience (Kolb's model) Concrete experience -> Reflective observation -> Abstract conceptualization -> Active experimentation ->
Organizational learning Knowledge acquisition, sharing and use
Explicit knowledge easily communicated, training sessions, readily available, always concious
Tacit learned through experience, "Know-how/what/who," personal, subconcious, EXPERTISE
Non-programmed decisions: Rationality (rational decision model) 1) Define problem<br>2)Identify decision criteria/allocate weights<br>3)Develop alternatives<br>4)Choose best alternative<br>5)Implement alternative<br>6)Evaluate the outcome
Assumptions with Rationality Know goal, know options, clear preferences and values, constant prefs, predict which is best
Emotions in decision making letting emotions affect decision making
Intuitive Decision Making know when problem or opportunity exists, select best course of action without conscious reasoning
Decision making problems - Satisficing choose "good enough" solution
Decision making problems - Bounded Rationality using limited and imperfect info to make decision
Simplified Decision Making Process (Bounded Rationality) - Perception<br> - Attribution<br> - Judgement (heuristics) - Decision-Making
Perception Way you see the world
Categorical Thinking Process to categorize sensory impressions
Mental Models Images in our mind representing outside world
Stereotyping Assigning traits to people based on their social category
Influencing Perception: Observer different personalities, interests, emotional markers
Influencing Perception: Target relationship with bg characteristic of target (size, repetition, status, role)
Influencing Perception: Situation biases context (time, place)
Attribution cause of what you see
Attribution process decide if event is caused by person or environment
Attribution errors: self-serving bias contribute success <= internal factors<br> blame failure <= external factors
Attribution errors: fundamental attribution error when you relate person's behavior to internal causes rather than situational causes
Attribution errors: self-fulfilling prophesy / Pygmalion Effect perceptions of others influence expectations for their behavior
Workplace implications of attribution manager incorrectly attributing employee's performance to internal characteristics (skills, aptitude or intelligence)
Judgement (heuristics) what conclusion you draw
Heuristic experience-based techniques for problem solving, learning, and discovery
Availability Heuristic (retrievability, vividness, immediacy) - how easily recall similar things
Representativeness Heuristic how similar something is to prototype or model, how it represents "typical" case
Anchoring & Adjustment heuristic relative thinking from an anchor point
Decision-making what you choose to do
Escalation of commitment persisting in a failing course of action<br>Causes: "too much invested," "sunk-cost effect," "psychology of entrapment"
Employee Involvement in Decision Making degree in which employees influence how their work is organized and carried out
Benefits and employee involvement outcomes - employees know problem best<br> - more and better solutions working together<br> - strengthens employee commitment to decision
Contingencies of involvement - Decision Structure<br> - source of decision knowledge<br> - decision commitment<br> - risk of conflict
Decision structure no need for employee involvement with routine problems
Source of decision knowledge when leader lacks sufficient knowledge, employees should be involved in decision
decision commitment employee participation improves employee commitment to decision
risk of conflict when employee goals conflict with org's goals or when employees may not reach agreement on a solution
Created by: thecrew
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