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Chapter 5-6 (RT180)

physics chapters 5-6

What are the 3 major parts of the xray circuit? 1.Low voltage operating console 2.High voltage generator 3.xray tube
What type of transformers are use in the xray circuit? Autotransfomer, step up transformer, step down (filament) transformer
What kind of timer is used in the xray circuit? electronic timer
What does a rectifier do? coverts AC to DC
how many rectifiers does single phase, half-wave use? 2 rectifiers
how many rectifiers does single phase, full-wave use? 4 rectifiers
how many rectifiers does 3 phase, 6 pulse use? 6 rectifiers
how many rectifiers does 3 phase, 12 pulse use? 12 rectifiers
What is meant by single phase power? power that ranges from zero to 120 and results in a pulsating xray beam
What is meant by 3 phase power? multiple superimposed voltage wave forms, that results in nearly constant high voltage
Why is 3 phase more efficient than single phase? Because it never goes to zero so its power is always constant
How efficient is a 3 phase, 6 pulse generator? 87%
how efficient is a 3 phase, 12 pulse generator? 96.5%
How many degrees out of step is each phase? 120 degrees
What device is used to check timer accuracy of 3 phase equipment? solid-state radiation detector
Explain a high frequency generator? produces a nearly constant potential voltage waveform, improving image quality with lower pt dose, also very little voltage ripple
Explain capacitor-discharge generator? used on portables, stores electricity, then discharges it upon taking an exposure
what formula is used for power rating for xray units? watts= mA x kV KW= (mA x kVp)/1000 (single phase: multiply expression by .7)
What devices are used for AEC? -currently= ionization chamber -orginally= photodiode
Define isotropic as it relates to the xray beam? xrays are produced with equal intensity in all directions
What is the filament made of? tungsten
What is meant by dual focus? 2 filaments and 2 focal spots
What is the focusing cup made of and what is its function? tungsten or molybdenum, and it focuses the electrons
What is meant by thermionic emission? Is when the current passes thru the filament and literally boils off electrons
what is filament vaporization? heating of the tube forms tungsten vapors inside the tube
What is the more prevalent cause of tube failure? filament vaporization
what causes the anode to crack or pit? excessive temps. during single exposure
what is the HU (heat unit) equation for single phase? HU=kV x mAs
What is the HU equation for 3 phase, 6 pulse? HU=kV x mAs x 1.35
what is the HU equation for 3 phase, 12 pulse? HU=kV x mAs x 1.41
what is the HU equation for high frequency? HU=kV x mAs x 1.45
What are the 2 main circuits of the xray imaging system? 1.high voltage/tube circuit 2.filament
what are the typical xray room ranges for kVp and mA? kVp: 25-120 mA: 100-1200
What does the line compensator do? automatically keeps voltage consistent
What are the electrical connections on the transformers called? Taps
what is the equation for the autotransformer law? Vs/Vp=Ns/Np
what is the turns ratio equation? Ns/Np
When you use AEC the machine sets a back-up timer to what? 1 and 1/2 times the expected exposure time
What are the types of timers? -Mechanical -Synchronous -Electronic -AEC
If the timer is not working properly it is usually due to what? faulty rectifior
what is the maximum permissible level of leakage radiation? 100 mR/hr at 1m
what is the space charge effect? once the electrons boil off they remain in a cloud around the filament
what are the 2 main parts of the cathode? filament and focusing cup
what are the 2 types of anodes? stationary and rotating
what are the 3 types of xray tube rating charts? 1.radiographic rating chart 2.anode cooling chart 3.housing cooling chart
What is directly connected to the autotransfomer? kVp meter
Created by: Chrslarsen