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Local Anesthetics

Pharmacokinetics Exam 5

QuestionAnswer
What is another name for a target cell? Nerve Cell
Local anesthetics block what channel? Sodium aka Sodium Channel Blockers
True/False - Local anesthetics provide a TEMPORARY block in nerve transmission True
How do nerve cells communicate? Via ionic messages
What is the excitability of cells based on? The structure of the cell membrane and its components
Nerve cells are refered to as what? Excitable cells
What is the function of a nerve cell? Transmission of signals from one place in the body to another
What are nerve cells as well as all other cells in the body composed of? 1. Cell body 2. Nucleus 3. Microcellular organelles
What do organelles contain? RNA, DNA, mitochondria, golgi bodies...basicaly everything inside the cell
What happens to the sodum channels when a local anesthetic is given? The local anesthetic lugs up the sodium channel traping potassium inside and leaving sodium outside
The communication function of the nerve cell is served by an elongation of the nerve cell body and this is termed? Axon
What are the outfoldings of the cell body and located in close proximity to the nucleus? Dendrites (fingerlike projections)
What is the term for intracellular fluid? Axoplasm
What is the purpose of axoplasm? Serves a transport function for the active movement of energy and waste material
What facilitates transport within the axoplasm? Microtubules
True/False - microtubules allow the movement of metabolic substances rapidly between the cell body and the end of the axons True
What is the dendritic zone? The receptive part of the neuron or nerve cell that is close to the cell body
True/False - The dendritic zone is much larger than the cell body True
What is composed of many outfoldings of the nerve cell membrane in the area of the cell body? The Dendritic Zone
What are dendrites actively involved with? The synaptic process with other neurons and are sites for initiation of excitability
What requires an intact nerve cell membrane that is energy dependent? Neural transmission
Where is information received from in the nerve cell? Sensory and motor neurons
The information is propogated from the _______ and is modified by the structure of the _______. Original signal, dendritic anatomy
True/False - Both the ECF around the nerve and the ICF of the axoplasm are fat based and non ionized False - Both the ECF around the nerve and the ICF of the axoplasm are WATER BASED and highly IONIC
Highly ionic means? Highly electrically charged
The nerve cell membrane is a ________ embedded with _______ and is very _______. Lipid bilayer, lipoproteins, hydrophobic
What functions as a barrier to ionic movement? Nerve Cell Membrane
Ionic movement only occurs at gaps formed by lipoproteins called _________. Ion Channels
True/False - Nerve fibers are all morphologically the same False - Not all nerve fibers are morphologically the same
What are the 2 protective cells that cover the axon? Schwann Cells and oligodendrocytes
Where are Schwann Cells located? Peripheral Nervous System
Where are Oligodendrocytes located? Central Nervous System
What do Schwann cells produce? Schwann cells produce myelin and the myelin insulates nerve cells
What is the weakest point of the axon termed? Nodes of Ranvier
When a local anesthetic is given. where does it tend to migrate to and why? Nodes of Ranvier because it is the weakest point of the axon and easiest to penetrate
What 3 jobs do schwann cells have? 1. Enzyme Synthesis 2. Metabolic needs of the axon 3. Synthesis of myelin
Schwann cells create the myelin sheath by wrapping spirally around the ______, between __ and ___ revolutions. Axon, 50, 200
What 2 functions does the myelin sheath serve? 1. Insulating 2. Protective
Define Nodes of Ranvier Are defined as gaps between adjacent Schwann cells on the axon occur at regular interval of abut 1mm
True/False - The density of sodium channels within the Nodes of Ranvier are low False - The density within the sodium channels is high
To activate sodium channels at the next adjacent gap, what must happen? The sodium currents in the areas of the Nodes of Ranvier must be sufficient in order to activate the sodium channels at the next adjacent gap
Define Saltatory Conduction Communication between the Nodes of Ranvier involving the sodium currents
The terminal end of the axon is called? Synaptic Terminal
What occurs at the synaptic terminal? The efferent (exit) neural conduction can be transmitted to other excitable tissues, such as other nerves and motor endplates.
Created by: Lmc145
 

 



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