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Pathology Ch 8

Nervous System

Acute inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid layers: Meningitis
A viral infection of the brain and meninges caused by the herpes simplex virus: Encephalitis
This is usually the result of chronic infections of the sinuses, middle ear, mastoids or system infections like pneumonia: Brain Abscess
What is the most common cause of a subdural empyema? Spread of infection from frontal or ethmoid sinuses
What is the most common primary malignant brain tumor? Glioma
What is the most common type of glioma? Astrocytoma
These are benign tumors that arise from the arachnoid lining cells and are attached to the dura: Meningiomas
A slow-growing benign tumor that occurs on the eighth cranial nerve: Acoustic Neuroma
This tumor can compress the brain stem and cerebellum: Acoustic Neuroma
These cause enlargement of the sella turcica and erosion of the dorsum sellae: Pituitary Adenomas
The most common primary malignancies that metastasize to the brain are _________ and ______________. Breast and lung
What causes epidural hematomas? Arterial bleeding in the cranium
What causes subdural hematomas? Venous bleeding int he cranium
What are the most common facial bone fractures? Nasal bone fractures
What kind of fracture occurs when the zygoma is separated from the other facial bones? Tripod Fracture
What projection is useful in demonstrating fractures of the zygomatic arches? Submentalvertical Projection (SMV)
A direct blow to the orbit can cause a ____________ fracture. Blow-out fracture
Bilateral and horizontal fractures of the maxillae are called what? LeFort Fractures
What is the technical definition of a stroke? Sudden and dramatic development of a focal neurologic deficit
What is the most common cause of a stroke? Thrombosis
What is the 2nd most common cause of a stroke? Brain Hemorrhage
Paralysis on one side of the body could be a symptom of a _____________ and called _______________. Stroke; Hemiplegia
What are 2 additional names for a stroke? CerebroVascular accident; Acute Brain infarction
What are focal neurologic defects that completely resolve within 24 hours? Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIA's)
What is a major cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage? Rupture of a berry aneurysm
What is the most common cause of nontraumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage in patients under the age of 20? Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM)
A condition in the which the brain impulses are disturbed and causes symptoms ranging from loss of consciousness to violent seizures: Epilepsy
This is a degenerative neurologic disease that causes widespread selective atrophy and loss of motor nerves that eventually leads to paralysis and death: Amyotrophic lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's Disease)
Created by: foster1317